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Gas turbine handbook: principles and practices/by Tony. Giampaolo pdf. “ Behavior of Two Capstone 30 kW Microturbines Operating in Par-. Gas Turbine Engineering Handbook discusses the design, fabrication, installa- tion, operation, and maintenance of gas turbines. The second edition is not only. 1. An Overview of Gas Turbines. 3. Gas Turbine Cycle in the Combined Cycle or Cogeneration Mode. 3. Gas Turbine Performance. 6.
Material selection With steam cooling. Further combustion control can be provided by means of an optional bypass system that allows the amount of dilution air to be varied. In power generation machinery that generally operates at base load. The - 11N2 can also handle the same rough fuel as the D. If gas or diesel fuel back up fuel is used.
It covers the theory and practice of design; major components; materials, fuel technology, and fuel systems; auxiliary components and accessories; and installation, operation, and maintenance. We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit. If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website.
Thanks in advance for your time. Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages All Webpages Books Journals. View on ScienceDirect. Meherwan Boyce. Hardcover ISBN: Published Date: Page Count: Sorry, this product is currently out of stock.
Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices. Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including Kindle. The location of injection is commonly the filter plane and the compressor inlet. Siemens Westinghouse In summary: Case 4. In this and similar cases. Note that NOx emissions stayed below legislated limits for countries such as environmentally strict Singapore.
To increase the power output of gas turbines. Evaporative Cooler System Air chiller: An air intake chiller system consists of a heat exchanger.
After the fine filter an evaporative cooler or a fogging nozzle rack saturates the air and near the compressor intake a high fogging nozzle rack injects additional water. The closed cooling water is re-cooled in plate heat exchangers by one or more chillers. The heat exchanger cools the compressor inlet flow by the transfer of heat energy to a closed cooling water circuit. The evaporation of water reduces the air temperature hence density and the GT swallows a higher air mass flow.
Load control regulates the cooling energy of each chiller to the desired plate heat exchanger outlet temperature of the cooling water. Higher power generation per unit volume of air swallowed and better efficiency result. The closed loop cooling water is forwarded by one or more chilled water pumps. Air Inlet Cooling Principle 7 The power gain is achieved due to 3 factors: Outlet temperatures for each chiller correspond to a set point to the local control.
Maximum power gain is achieved. The chillers are usually installed in In contrast to evaporative coolers. The latter is needed to take out water droplets from condensation of humid air. The evaporative cooler is only switched on and off. The water evaporates mostly before entering the compressor and the air is cooled down before compressor inlet. Evaporative coolers: The major components of an evaporative cooler are: The amount of injected water depends on ambient temperature and humidity and is controlled by logic.
The water consumption is higher if tap water is used. The amount of evaporated water depends on ambient temperature and humidity.
The evaporative cooler increases humidity close to saturation. The water evaporates and the air is cooled down before entering the compressor.
Maximum total capacity is The cooler media and the droplet separator produce a pressure drop between 1. Claire Soares the gas turbine air intake downstream of the air filter together with a droplet separator.
High Fogging System: In order to increase power augmentation further. The nozzles are mounted on tubes which are installed in the air intake downstream of the filter. These subgroups are switched on and off by the control logic in order to adjust the water mass flow to ambient conditions. Water must be de-mineralized and 2 standard fogging systems are used. These droplets evaporate mainly inside the compressor as the air is heated up during compression.
Small droplets promote good evaporation in the air intake.
They provide the required droplet size. The valves allow the sequencing of the water flow rate into sub-groups typically 15 or This is to ensure that water films and large secondary droplets.
These systems are called high fogging. A high pressure piston pump feeds de-mineralized water at constant pressure typically bars to the valve skid.
Typically 3 additional drain lines are installed in the air intake before and after the silencer and in the manifold. At lower ambient humidity and the higher ambient temperature.
Steady state cycle simulations confirmed that high fogging leads to a slight shift in the hot gas temperature if dry TIT turbine inlet temperature formulas are applied without any adoption. If the control system is not adjusted to take into account the effect of the water content due to high fogging the pulsation levels of the combustion system and CO emissions may increase. NOx typically appears to decrease with increasing high fogging water mass flow.
Less air mass means less fuel mass is required to be ignited with that air and consequential lower power developed. Claire Soares While fogging and evaporative cooler power increase depends on ambient conditions. Performance Optimization. As this rises. Water vapor is less dense than air. Drains in the air intake manifold ensure that water films and large secondary droplets are extracted from the air-steam flow.
Increasing altitude means lower density air. This takes into account the amount of water injected for High Fogging. The total water mass flow capacity of the high fogging system for a GT24 and GT26 is currently 1.
The valves. The high-pressure pump operation is also similar. As countermeasure a modified TIT formula analogue to those used for oil operation with NOx water injection or operation with steam injection for power augmentation was implemented.
The effect is the same as with the two above factors. The table below on performance for the Siemens SGTF formerly Siemens Westinghouse WF Econopac indicates the difference water injection and steam injection can make to nominal power ratings.
Performance Data: The following conditions apply to figures 62 a through d: Siemens Westinghouse The subject of performance optimization is a vast one which would include several subtopics. See the section on Design Development. Net Ref. The following figures also demonstrate the effect of atmospheric conditions on the power developed. Claire Soares Table 6. Siemens Westinghouse Siemens Westinghouse Fig.
Its overall design ensures easy service access to the combustor and burners. As a skid-mounted package with single-lift capacity and standard anti-corrosion materials and coatings. A case in point. Direct drive of pipeline or process compressor is provided for by the free high-speed power turbine. Claire Soares Depending on how one defined performance optimization. This allows the OEM to use proven technology that has long emerged from prototype growing pains.
So the OEM goes through the expense of rigorous testing to minimize the risk of warranty-period costs. Some examples are: An application case for the SGT illustrates an example of extending the application of a basic gas turbine core in this case the SGT design.
As discussed in the section on design development. It can operate on both gas and liquid fuels with on-line switch- over between fuels. The revised stage compressor produces a higher pressure ratio and an increase in mass flow through the engine. This two-shaft machine can be used for both power generation and mechanical drive in both combined cycle and cogeneration applications.
The updated machine has full dry low- emission DLE capability. SGT Gas Turbine. We noted in the section on design development. This results in greater power output and higher efficiency. The digital control unit is based on the proven design of the SGT To optimize performance.
Single and Multi shaft arrangements for CC plants Reference: This municipal utility in the southern Swedish town of Helsingborg is using this gas turbine to extend its Vasthamn coal-fired power station. The SGT gas turbine has been integrated with an existing steam turbine system to create a combined cycle. Fitted with AEV burners. It burns natural gas from the pipeline which passes through Helsingborg. Municipal utility in the southern Swedish town of Helsingborg Source: The shaft power from the gas turbine and that developed by the steam turbine both run the generator that produces electric power.
So a combined cycle is a form of cogeneration. CHP plant. A schematic diagram for a single shaft combined cycle. Courtesy McGraw Hill. A schematic diagram for a dual-pressure combined cycle. The plant system may also incorporate other accessories. Claire Soares Combined cycle plants are generally open cycle systems. A Schematic of a GT closed system with regeneration Fig.
See the block diagram figures below for a representation of GT closed systems. A Schematic of a GT closed system with regeneration and intercooling. They are followed by a figure that represents a GT open system with water injection and regeneration. Sometimes as many as four but most frequently two gas turbines.
Gas flapper valves allow the gas turbine exhaust to bypass the heat recovery boiler HRSG allowing the gas turbine to operate if the steam unit is down for maintenance. In areas such as Scandinavia.
In earlier designs supplementary oil or gas firing was also included to permit steam unit operation with the gas turbine down. A multi-shaft arrangement can also be used: Each gas turbine drives a generator and has its own HRSG. This is not generally included in contemporary combined-cycle designs.
This further assists generation dispatching. Gas turbines can be commissioned initially 1 to 2 years project construction and then the HRSG s and steam turbine s an additional 6 months to 1 year. This then provides better efficiency at partial load than operating one large machine with the total capacity equal to the gas turbine s and the steam turbine. In this way. Combined Cycle Module Flexibility With combined cycles.
Malaysia plant. As stated previously. At a later stage. World Bank The database lists projected orders through Gas turbine GT or combined-cycle CC construction cost per kilowatt cost does not increase much for smaller turbines. Wagerup Stage 2. Paul I. A projectdatabase developed by Siemens KWU was used to analyze all combined.
A combination of more than one block improves economics. That power plant will also provide reserve capacity to the new wholesale electricity market in the state of Western Australia. For this combination 2 to 6 parallel units single shaft or multi-shaft will suffice.
Power systems in countries with relatively small generating capacity. A CC unit can typically be installed in two to three years. GT and 1. The size of the modules then provides the option for Sohar to add an additional MW of capacity in the future two GT13E2 gas turbines. The Alstom turbines will operate initially in open cycle Wagerup Stage 1.
Specific areas of the analysis are summarized as follows: In terms of overall plant size.
New Zealand uses the modular concept Source: Siemens Westinghouse Countries with large grids and high power demand growth prefer combined cycle plants in the range to 2. With steam turbines. Financiers are also familiar with these economies of scale.. Siemens Power. Karg J. The power plant. Claire Soares Another case88 illustrating application of the 2. New order forecasts show the market evenly divided between 50 Hz or 60 Hz customers. For a combined cycle plant. For design flexibility.
OEMs have developed modular plants. With the gas turbine. Steam-only coal fired Power Plant: Markets for Gas Turbines 10 For peaking power or power systems with very low cost fuels. For example. Countries with smaller or specialized grids buy multi-shaft combined cycle plants with several smaller gas turbines with one or more steam turbines.
In the 50 Hz market. Rising gas and oil prices everywhere. OEMS strive to maintain core feature commonalities. Siemens has twelve basic power plant combinations Figure Above MW.
Flexible design requires breaking down the power plant into functional units. Each combination covers a specific power range. Dirty fuels. Markets for Steam Turbines 10 Fig. Reference Power Plant Data 10 As we saw previously. Reduced component life due to hot gas path corrosion caused by vanadium deposits and other corrosion is another factor to consider. Kot Addu and Valladolid have accumulated As this table shows. A shutdown with a crank soak every to hours is required.
Note that reduced availability will result due to water cleaning shutdowns to remove blade deposits. Table 7 provides a sample of naphtha.
Sodium and potassium are removed from residual. They require fuel treatment equipment. A magnesium additive system reduces vanadium.
A simpler and less expensive purification system will do the same job for light crude and light distillates.. As we also saw previously in the case of the Shunde plant in south China.
Table 11 shows some key non-standard fuels and their effect on a standard fuel system. To illustrate this. Taud R. To overcome these difficult fuel properties. Claire Soares Table 7. These include GT layout compressor.. Good manhole access was a critical success factor for this project as servicing and maintenance during turbine washing shutdowns are simplified. The plan is to eventually convert the Valladolid plant to natural gas operation.
This converts the vanadium into a stable water-soluble product magnesium vanadate. This is deposited downstream of the combustor on the gas turbine blades.
To prevent major performance loss with salt build up as with the Shunde. This means the market is exceptionally competitive. Fewer operators are required than in a steam plant. Given that most of the new plants are going into newly developing countries. China plant that we read about previously. The control system on combined cycle units is automatic. This plant. When an operator starts the unit.
Some estimate that burning residual or crude oil will increase maintenance costs by a factor of 3. In the case of the Valladolid plant. Fuel impurities sodium. These costs vary. This is achieved by feeding the exhausts into a heat-recovery steam generator HRSG which provides additional steam to the existing steam turbine. Repowering is a term used to define the reconfiguration of a power station.
Demographics also alter construction costs. When the decision was made to allow North Sea petrochemical liquid deposits to vaporize and be delivered as gas instead.
Downsizing power delivery to the grid requirements will change overall operational cost figures. Since the late eighties Claire Soares As one might expect.
As a significant extension of their revenue. It may mean replacing a steam turbine with a gas turbine or combined cycle.
In some cases. The most common configuration is called Figure 79 parallel powering. Compared with the customized design and construction. Financial means keep many of the end users in these As an illustration. OEMs are aware that end users compare cost data at various meetings and forums. For the OEM. Driving Forces in Power Plant Construction 10 Figure 81 shows11 the cost breakdown for combined cycle plants MW MW capacity based on Siemens experience into the following categories: Between the s and OEMs must offer better warranty packages.
So the standardization of core design to minimize spares costs. This then means that the fierce inter-OEM rivalry with respect to fuel efficiency will escalate.
The market in the Asia Pacific Basin was declining. The Kuala Langat station also provided a good example of cogeneration as it sells its excess steam to a nearby mill. Three major infrastructure changes continue to drastically alter the face of the power generation industry and directly or indirectly promote technological innovation.
Many SPPs can sell their excess power back to the utility grid. The waste hydrocarbon fluids they used as fuel. They are: This then means that independent power producers IPPs. USA fuel related costs i. Most of the major OEMs have joint ventures all over the world that involve power generation.
They provide training to their local partners and thus promote employment and technology to newly industrialized countries. The only fact that anyone will sign their name to. In comparison with coal fuelled power plants. If not. HRSG and the steam turbine system allows phased construction as well as retrofitting of the CC plant with a gasification plant. Through This then short circuits much of the Fuel Purchase Agreement contractual formalities that other IPPs have to negotiate.
Three options are available. Figure 85 shows some of the IGCC plants that are planned or under construction. This includes gasification and downstream gas purification removal of sulfur and heavy metal compounds in accord with required emissions levels. Shell in the United Kingdom is a good example of a growing trend. Depending on the degree of integration between the gas turbine and the air separation unit ASU. The modular design gas generation.
IGCC is a combination of two proven technologies. IGCC will see commercial application in developed countries. This replaces the "standard" gas turbine fuels natural gas or fuel oil by syngas produced from coal or refinery residues. With environmental emissions including greenhouse gases. IGCC plants compare well with pulverized coal-fired steam power plants. As IPPs. There are about CC units plants ordered per year. A summary of the important criteria is provided in Figure 83 Figure 84 sets out the principal criteria for selection of the different IGCC integration concepts.
The selection of the appropriate air and nitrogen integration concept depends on a number of factors to be considered on a case by case basis. Emissions and Byproducts of Different MW. Comparison of Supply Flows. Class Power Plants 11 11 Fig. Combined cycle. So this concept is of interest for applications where efficiency is not the key factor e. The concept with partial air-side integration is a compromise. The SGTE is used for simple or combined-cycle processes with or without combined heat and power.
The SGTE has more than units in operation accounting for approximately She also writes as a freelancer. Alstom power. A professional engineer registered in Texas. Fellow ASME.
Her specialty areas include turbomachinery diagnostic systems as well as failure analysis and troubleshooting. The land-based turbines gas. University of London. Soares worked on turbine metallurgy and repair procedures. She has lived and worked on four continents. In her years spent with large aircraft engine overhaul and aircraft engine fleet programs in the USA and Canada.
Solar and the companies they formerly were. She also was engineering manager for the first overhaul program in the USA for the V engine commissioned She is a commercial pilot.
Gas turbines land. Her scuba diving certification and training were in high altitude conditions. MBA Email: Her career experience also includes intensive training programs for engineers and technologists in industry.
Rolls Allison. Claire Soares has worked on rotating machinery for over twenty years. Soares P. Both CO and H2 are excellent fuels for use in a combustion turbine.
Because the mixture under gasifying conditions is fuel-rich. These changes are summarized in table 1. Just as most combustion-based processes such as power plants operate with excess oxygen to ensure complete conversion of the fuel. Diagram showing the products of reaction as a function of oxygen-to- coal ratio Reprinted from M. In addition to coal. NC Comparison to coal combustion phone: Fuel-bound section ofnitrogen. NH3 or HCN removed to very low levels with the resulting cleaned syngas having essentially no fuel-bound nitrogen.
The implications of this will be fully covered in Section 3. In fact.
NO2 HCN. Moving bed gasifiers are countercurrent flow reactors in which the coal enters at the top of the reactor and air or oxygen enters at the bottom. As the coal slowly moves down through the reactor. Fuel-bound nitrogen. Gasifiers the reactor. As will be described Thisfurther on. In combustion.
As the coal slowly moves down through many gasifiers are refractory-lined with no water cooling to ensure as little heat loss as possible. Because significantly less heat is released by the gasification process.
Because of the countercurrent flow arrangement. It is also important that the temperatures within the bed are less than the initial ash fusion temperature of the coal to avoid particle agglomeration. The mixing also fosters uniform temperatures throughout the bed. Because of the short residence time. The coal rapidly heats up and reacts with the oxidant.
The size of the bed is dictated by the residence time of the syngas in the bed. Hg capture can be accomplished by passing the syngas through a sulfur-impregnated.
Each of these options can have important impacts on the downstream processes in an IGCC including the combined cycle. Slurry-fed feed systems have a lower capital cost. Gas turbines are fairly tolerant of sulfur species in the fuel. HCN and NH3 concentrations typically are on the order of hundreds of ppmv in raw syngas.
As described earlier. Even ppmv of sulfur in the fuel would result in a relatively high sulfuric acid dewpoint in the exhaust gas. Consensus is growing that using a combination of a stand-alone.
This can be accomplished either by passing the syngas through a series of heat exchangers which recover the sensible heat for use in the steam cycle of the IGCC. Non-quench designs that require CO2 capture will have to add steam to the syngas before it is sent to a water-gas shift reactor.
HCl is quite soluble in water. Chlorides must be removed from the syngas to prevent corrosion in the GT hot section. While it is not necessary for protection of the GT. Because of its high solu- bility in water. Because of the dilution effect of the nitrogen. Quench designs also have an advantage if CO2 capture is desired. It could also be supplied by a combination of those two options.
This bed will also remove heavy metal species such as arsenic. Concentrations of sulfur greater than that will cause unacceptably rapid corrosion of hot section parts. This increases the cost and decreases the effectiveness of the CO2 removal equipment.
This would limit the amount of heat that could be recovered from the exhaust in the HRSG. Quench designs have a negative impact on the heat rate of an IGCC as the sensible heat of the high temperature syngas is converted to low level process heat rather than high pressure steam. The steam is combined with the steam produced by the HRSG and drives a single steam turbine.
The quenched syngas is saturated with water and must pass through a series of condensing heat exchanges which remove the moisture from the syngas so it can be recycled to the quench zone.
Boyce has 40 years of experience in the field of Turbomachinery in both industry and academia. His industrial experience includes 20 years as Chairman and CEO of Boyce Engineering International, and five years as a designer of compressors and turbines for various gas turbine manufacturers. Boyce is the author of several books and has authored more than technical papers and reports on Gas Turbines, Compressors Pumps, Fluid Mechanics, and Turbomachinery and has taught over short courses around the world, attended by over 3, students representing over companies.
He is a much-requested speaker at universities and conferences throughout the world. Boyce received a B. Review of first edition: We are always looking for ways to improve customer experience on Elsevier. We would like to ask you for a moment of your time to fill in a short questionnaire, at the end of your visit. If you decide to participate, a new browser tab will open so you can complete the survey after you have completed your visit to this website. Thanks in advance for your time.
Skip to content. Search for books, journals or webpages All Webpages Books Journals. View on ScienceDirect. Meherwan Boyce. Hardcover ISBN: Gulf Professional Publishing.