Books shelved as pakistan-studies: Pakistan Studies by Muhammad Raza Kazmi , Pakistan: Beyond the 'Crisis State' by Maleeha Lodhi, India Wins Freedom. The ideology of Pakistan stemmed from the instinct of the Muslim community of .. Hameed writes in his book, Muslim Separatism in India, that the partition was . Note on Pakistan Studies by Virtual University. Identifier PakistanStudiesCompleteNotesByVU. Identifier-arkark://t3mw41h Ocr ABBYY.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Hindi|
|Genre:||Health & Fitness|
|ePub File Size:||18.70 MB|
|PDF File Size:||9.15 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Pakistan Studies Pakistan Affairs Notes By Shakeel ayofoto.info A full CIP record for this book is available from the British Library longer their feudatory Pakistan Studies is the integrated, coordinated, and systematic area of study that The subject is based exclusively on books; teachers just convey that information. • Learning occurs .. ayofoto.info ayofoto.info INTRODUCTION. This course of Pakistan Studies — which is a multi-disciplinary subject – OBJECTIVES: Broadly speaking, the Curriculum of Pakistan Studies is designed to: .. they have learned from their books or the teacher's lecture.
Was the first army chief to declare Martial law in Pakistan. The land of Jhansi suffered from this law. He tried to control moral behavior of people through a strict rule. Doors of new jobs were closed and also the Muslims were deprived of their jobs and were deprived of their property estates. Join Goodreads.
Hindu were very angry and they started non cooperation campaign. They blamed British of dividing them with their Divide and Rule policy. They claimed that British had tried to weaken Hindu Unity because they had started to call for reforms through the use of Congress.
Hindus performed many protests and many petitions were sent to the government. They attempted assassination over the new viceroy Lord Minto due to this event.
They started a Swadeshi Movement in which they stopped buying British goods and threw many British goods in fire. British sales dropped dramatically. Simla Deputation and Formation of Muslim League: Muslims watched Hindus reaction on partition of Bengal and decided something had to be done to protect their identity.
Further more National Congress was dominated by Hindus and Muslims needed a base of their own as their voice for the British for Hindus could not be trusted to favour Muslims. They needed to get some reforms. They wanted right of separate electorate to protect their interests, religion and language. Thus they formed they had a meeting with Viceroy Minto in Simla on 8th October Simla Deputation: Asked for separate electorates. They asked for higher percentage of seats than their higher population.
Morley Minto Reforms, Also known as the Indian Council Acts. Basically it increased representation of Hindus and Muslims in different councils. Reversal of Partition of Bengal and its effect: Because new viceroy and King George 5 ordered for the reversal of partition. British had been forced to reverse by Hindu protests. The British feared more assassination attempts from Hindus.
It affected the Muslims greatly whose feelings of loyalty had been taken for granted and they realized that they need to be organized to have a voice of their own. The Lucknow Pact, Was the first Agreement between Congress and Muslim League. Important as it established Jinnah as the focal point for this agreement and showed his great political abilities.
It was done because the Muslim League felt that they needed the support of Congress in its early years. Because they thought they could pressurize British together in accepting their demands. See full detail in the book page The Monatague Chelmsford Reforms, Basically introduced a system of Diarchy in which certain subjects like local government, education, health and other facilities were transferred under the Indians rule while the real power remained with the viceroy like foreign affairs, Police and Revenue.
Gave right of separate electorate to Muslims. Rowlatt Act, Prison without trial: This act was passed when the protest over the Mont-Ford reforms started and other minorities began to demand separate electorate.
The act was passed allowing arrest without warrant, detention without bail and provincial government ordering people where to live. Amritasar Massacre: After passing of Rowlat Act more agitation started a new series of protests and on a curfew time, people about 20, in number turned up for a peaceful protest at Jilianwalah Bagh where G. Deyer ordered his troops to open fire on crowd without warning killing and injuring many. Ottoman Empire held great importance to Muslims in India and so they wanted to protect it and save the Khalifa.
Because the Holy places of Muslims were in the Ottoman Empire so their was a great threat that British might harm Holt places of Muslims. Reasons of its failure: Because of many reasons the movement failed. Withdrawl of Gandhi: Hindus had been cooperating in this movement by performing their own non co-operation to British. Hijrat Movement: Because many Muslims tried to migrate towards Afghanistan but were not allowed in the country so they had to return to find their properties plundered and captured by Hindus.
This increased rifts between the 2 nations and also weakened the Movement as Muslims did not have the strength to take part in it. Moplah Uprising: British was angered by this Uprising and so they became firm on their decision.
Declaration of Turkey: Turkey itself declared itself independent when Kamal Ataturk removed the Khalifa and so the purpose of the movement failed and it ended. This council was formed 2 years earlier by Conservative Party because they feared the Labour Party to give two much concessions to Indians so it was formed 2 years earlier.
Its purpose was to built a unanimous constitution. It contained all British Officials. Nehru Report, Simon commission appointed Motilal Nehru to discuss and make a unanimous constitution and after much discussions when the final version of report came out it omitted all Muslim rights.
It disapproved for right of separate electorate for Muslims. It asked Hindi to be the official Language and Muslims were given less representation. The report reformed Muslim fears about Hindu dominion and the threat to their identity. Jinnah gave his 14 points as an answer to Nehru Report. It gave aims for Muslim League. He gave it as His own Constitutional Formulae. It demanded Provincial autonomy. It demanded separate electorate and rights of Muslims in minorities.
The 14 points were of great importance as they became the aims and basis for the demand of independence and partition. Round Table Conferences, These were held in London to discuss a unanimous constitution with the Indians. Jinnah and Muslim League attended. Congress boycotted because Gandhi was imprisoned due to his non-cooperation and Salt Movement.
The Conference failed in its main purpose but was achieved little success as British agreed the introduction of representative government at provincial level. Both Jinnah and Gandhi attended it. Gandhi took a hard line and refused to discuss minority problem claiming to represent the whole Indian community.
Congress stood by Nehru Report and refused to listen to anything. This conference failed as well. Little achievement in this was the acceptance for NWFP and Sindh to be given provincial status and governors.
Was held in and neither Gandhi attended nor Jinnah. The Conference was a complete failure. The only success was the passing of Communal Awards.
In Chaudhary R. He later issued a pamphlet which gave the name and its origins for his supposed partitioned Muslim Country. He gave the name Pakistan. P for Punjab. K for Kashmir. I for Iran. S for Sindh. T for Turkiministan. A for Afghanistan. N from Baluchistan. The Government of India Act It announced Elections. Raised representation and also gave right of separate electorate to Muslims.
Indians were not happy with it but accepted it due to the upcoming elections. Congress won the elections. It taught how Muslims needed to be more organized. It gave them experience of an election. It also gave realization that ML had an Image Problem and needed to focus on area with the minority of Muslims for there they had fared better results.
Thus began the cruel age of Congress Ministries. Congress Ministries Muslim League was badly treated by Congress. Congress refused to cooperate with them. Congress ministries started to introduce a series of measures, all which threatened Muslim Identity and culture.
The second famous issue was the Wardha Scheme in which Education was now in Hindi, spinning cotton by hand was introduced in the school curriculum and religious education was excluded. All Students had to bow to a picture of Gandhi before the start of the school. Further more Azan was forbidden, punishments on slaughtering of cows were introduced and attacks on mosques were done. Sometimes pigs were pushed in the mosques and noisy processions were arranged near the mosque during the time of prayer.
Anti-Muslim riots were also performed in which Muslims were killed, insulted and their properties were captured. This increased Hate and rifts between the 2 nations and The period was known as the Congress Tyranny Period. Congress Ministries Resign In , World War 2 broke out. Lord Linlithgow announced India at war with Germany. August Offer, Again Lord Linlithgow made an offer to the Indians which Increased representation in Executive Council of Indians while gave them the right to frame their own constitution after war.
However Congress refused this offer. Pakistan Resolution, At the annual session of Muslim League, The Resolution for a separate homeland was passed in which it was demanded that all Muslim majority provinces should be grouped as a one unit separate land.
Constituent Assembly to frame new constitution and members for this assembly to be elected after War. Muslims refused because they wanted a separate homeland and nothing else.
Quit India Movement In anger of Cripps Mission proposals and to pressurize the British in the crucial situation, Congress started a mass movement against British demanding British to leave. Jinnah condemned the Congress and saw it as an attempt to exploit British. British however became more determined to keep hold and shut this movement down by arresting many leaders and killing many people through the use of air bombing and gas.
Gandhi-Jinnah talks: A number of letters and conversations were held between the 2 leaders in however the result was disdainful as Gandhi wanted Self Rule first and then consider partition while Jinnah wanted Partition first and no other alternative. Gandhi wanted power in hands of Federal Government while Jinnah wanted provincial Autonomy. This widened the gulf between Hindus and Muslims even further. The Simla Conference: Lord Wavell held a conference as a last try to bring the two communities together suggesting the formation of an Executive Council which will have equal representation from both communities.
However Jinnah refused this offer demanding only partition. Muslim League one this election by a great margin with the motto of a separate homeland. Furthermore the Tyranny of Congress Ministries could not be forgotten so easily and Muslims could not risk the life of their identities again. Cabinet Mission Under Sir Stafford Crips a cabinet was formed to try to find a settlement acceptable to everyone in India.
However on finding little common ground between the communities, the Cabinet gave a plan which rejected Pakistan establishment while dividing India in 3 parts: Each part was to have local autonomy. Foreign Affairs, defence and communication was to be managed by Central Indian Union.
Furthermore it suggested formation of an interim government. However the plan was refused because of Congress disobedience to the Cabinet Plan. Direct Action Day It was peaceful demonstration to show that Muslims wanted Independence and British should hurry up with it. However in Calcutta it turned to serious rioting and people died in it. The plan finally announcing Partition of India into 2 states.
It grouped Muslim provinces and Hindu Provinces as single while giving right to the princely states to join any of the 2 countries with the vote of their people. Boundary Commission: The Boundaries of partition were done by this commission under Sir Radcliffe and Mount batten who unfairly gave certain Muslim areas like Gurdaspur, Ferozpur and Calcutta to India causing serious problem for the future of Pakistan.
He thought that army needs to rule now to restore stability to the country. He did not like the politicians because of their criticism of the army and general Ayub. East Pakistan was becoming rebellious so to put down their power and to start development in the country, Ayub Khan took over the rule. Gave us the Constitution. Introduced System of Basic Democracies.
Agricultural Reforms: Redistribution of lands for a better output. Big landowners were forced to find tenants. Loans to build wells were given.
Ayub brought about the Green Revolution. Industrial Reforms: Loans from Western countries were taken. Oil refinery in and Mineral Development Corporation. RCD was signed for industrial and trade development. Export Bonus Scheme for exporting industries. However with the increase of Industry Pakistan became dependant on Foreign Aid. Social and Economic Reforms: New curriculum and textbooks.
More schools were built. Laws were passed to benefit and help refugees and shelter less. Family Planning Programme. More Medical nursing training and training schools to increase the number of doctors and nurses. New Capital: Government moved from Karachi to Islamabad for more central area for administration far from the trade centre Karachi. Simla Agreement: Simla Accord to get the captured land and prisoners from India back from War.
The Islamic Summit Conference: All Muslim leaders were invited to attend and discuss problems of Pakistan and other Muslim countries and how to solve them. New Constitution: A better and more democratic constitution. Land Ownership, reduced ceiling on land ownership.
Land available for people to hold their own farms. Security of Tenure: Tenants rights were improved. Nationalized all private sector schools. Health and Social Reforms: Rural Health Centres. Basic Health Units were built in urban areas. Training colleges for doctors and nurses were set up. Sale of Medicines under brand name was banned. Administrative Reforms: Re organized Civil Service.
Removed unnecessary distinctions between types of civil workers. The Nuclear Programme: His main policy. Shariat Court established. Fight against pagan communities during War against Russia. Hudood Ordinances. Zakat Ordinances. Zina Ordinance. Ushr Ordinance. Islamiyat studies made compulsory. Extra marks to candidates who were Hafiz in Civil Service Exams.
Some part of Radio and news was to be in Arabic. Strict Punishments imposed under Islamic Laws. Laws and government: Passed Laws restricting power of courts. Civil Service was brought under military control. Military courts were established to try offenders according to martial law. Provincial Constitutional Order took away rights of court to challenge any political executive decision. Encouraged multinational countries to invest in Pakistan. Tried to improve quality of government based industries.
He started a strict policy of Islamization to show that that he was more Islamic and much better than Bhutto, who had a more liberal approach. Further more he wanted to give impression to the world that he had an Islamic government. He believed that a much strict and strong government can be set up on Islamic Principals.
Chapter 1: The Decline of Mughals. Who was Aurangzeb Alamgir? Aurangzeb was the last great emperor of Mughal Empire who took over the throne after Shah Jahan. He was a courageous man who spent much of his time fighting wars and trying to administrate the empire efficiently.
He was a deeply religious man; he Wrote out copies of Quran and tried to impose Jizya tax Non Muslims. Aurangzeb was a just ruler and had a very simple character. Aurangzeb increased the size of Mughal Empire by capturing all but the very southern part of India. What kind of man was Aurangzeb? Aurangzeb was a deeply religious person; who wrote out copies of Quran and made the famous Pearl Mosque. He was a disciplined ruler with high administrative qualities due to which he was able to run the empire for a long time.
He was a just ruler and a brave one, whose main ambition was to increase his territory for which he believed it right to use any means. He was a person who could be ruthless to his own kith and kin like he killed his own brother in the battle over the Empire. What was the Jizya Controversy? Aurangzeb imposed the non Muslim tax again on the Indians.
This tax had been abolished long ago by Akbar. The non Muslims, specially Hindus were angered as it was a tax abolished long ago. It was a differential tax and was considered as enforcement to convert to Islam.
It was criticized as a way of supporting the long drawn costly wars and as a financial assistance. Was Aurangzeb responsible for the decline of Mughal Empire? To some extent Aurangzeb could be responsible for he built a lot of buildings which drained the treasury quicker than expected like the Pearl Mosque for his personal prayers. Aurangzeb fought long costly wars to capture more land and to fight of the invaders.
He could not administer very efficiently for he was often away from his capital. Who were the Marathas? The Marathas was a powerful group of people who were skilled as Guerrilla fighters.
They were devoted to Hinduism and had grown in power during the 17th century and they were the expected rulers after Mughals due to their power. Aurangzeb was unable to crush the Marathas of Deccan which proved their power. In they even occupied Delhi. They were defeated in the Third Battle of Paniput.
How were the Marathas Defeated? The Marathas were defeated by there inner weaknesses. They controlled more land than any ruler but not all was in one place.
Their unity and loyalty to the main Peshwa decreased and their power began to deteriorate. Than they were crushed in the 3rd Battle of Paniput in by the invading army of Ahmed Shah Abdali. They suffered heavy casualties in this battle and lost all their ambitions of ruling the Empire. How did invasions weaken the Mughal Empire? The invasions drained the Mughal Empire and destroyed its prestige.
The famous peacock throne of Mughals was taken away by Nadir Shah. Who was Ahmed Shah Abdali? He was also known as Ahmed Shah Durrani due to his leadership and military skills.
His military skills achieved the victory over Marathas in the 3rd Battle of Paniput. He had to turn back because of the mutiny of his followers instead of capturing the empire. Chapter 2: What did Shah Wali Ullah believe about the role of Islam? Shah WaliUllah believed that Islam should direct every aspect of life, political, social and economical behaviour should be guided by Islamic values.
He believed that Muslims can not be successful if they departed from the principles of their religion. He believed Islamic values of Justice and equilibrium must be followed. He emphasized on putting an end to cast and sect system and follow the teaching of brotherhood Islam to achieve success.
Who was ShahWaliUllah? He journeyed to Saudi Arabiya in and lived their till ; thewre he got educated under Shiekh Abu Tahir, a renowned religious scholar. He was a religious man who inspired Muslims to rise and follow the teachings of their religion.
He gained many disicples as well as many criticizers in the course of his work. He translated Quran first time in Persian in the Indian subcontinent. What were the achievements of Shah Wali Ullah?
He gave Muslims an Identity. He made the Muslims realize their mistakes and successfully united them. Who was Syed Ahmed Shaheed Barelvi? He disliked British rule. He struggled hard to finish Sikh rule in Punjab and died fighting for Muslims in the battle of Balakot in What was the Jihadi Movement?
It was purpose was to free Muslims from Sikh and British Rule. It aimed to organize the Muslims and think about betterment. The Sikhs under Ranjit Singh were a very powerful and superior force. The Muslims were divided and reluctant to work unitedly. The locals of Balakot and his own forces disagreed over the taxes he laid upon them. There was a lack of support.
What was the Faraizi Movement? The Faraizi movement was the movement started by Haji Shariat Ulla in East Bengal The Faraizi movement was started to organize Muslims by making them punctual in following their Faraiz. It aimed to protect the rights of poor Muslim farmers in East Bengal.
Its followers were known as Faraizis who grew greatly in number as the movement grew in popularity. Ther Fairaizi movement was very successful until an alrmaed British put an end to it recognising it as an opposition against them.
Who was Haji Sharait Ullah? He was a reformer and religious sxholar. He was born in in Faridpur District. He was the founder of the Fraiazi movement which aimed to organize muslims and protect their rights. Who was Titu Mir? Titu Mir was a disciple of Syed Ahmed Shaheed. He was from West Bengal where he tried to protect rights of farmer and free them from tyranny of Hindu zamindars. He made his base at Nalkerbaria, where he built a Bamboo Fort out of the Bamboo stick for his army.
He was killed in battle in The British in India 1. What was the East India Company? Its first port was set up at Surat. The East India Company gained power and created a private army.
It made a major role in establishing British Reign in the subcontinent. What was the Reason for British Interest to trade with India? The British wanted to use and take control over the major trade routes to control World Trade and they all passed through the subcontinent. The British wanted to eliminate all other countries from competitions. The British wanted to trade for its economic growth..
What effect did British Have on Indians? The British caused a change in Indian culture. The British caused the increase in resentment and misery in the Indians. The British changed the religion of people and the laws they were following. Who was Robert Clive? Clive is considered as the founder of British rule in the subcontinent. He was victorious leader in Battle of Plassey against Nawab of Bengal. He became the Governor of Bengal and was later convicted of corruption. He commited suicide at the age of 49 due to addiction to opium and destruction of prestige.
What was the Doctrine of Lapse? It stated that any ruler who does not have any male heir will have his land taken in British possession after his death. The land of Jhansi suffered from this law. The Doctrine caused a lot of resentment and played a major role in the British Expantion in the subcontinent. What were the Subsidiary Alliances? The Subsidiary Alliances were another tool in the British expansionism introduced by Lord Wellesley in These Alliances were formed between the ruler of a state and the British.
According to them, the ruler was given British protection while the state was controlled by the British in actual. Many states fell prey to them and due to them British were able to take over a vast area of land in the Subcontinent.
The State of Hyderabad was the first to form this alliance. What was the Pitts India Act ? This introduced a Governor General to oversee the business in India. Introduced a Board of Control which was to decide all political matters in India and appoint any Senior Officer there.
This Act was the sign that British Government was not ready to loose India and because the Company was going bankrupt so from stopping its corruption to strengthen its hold over India this Act was passed. Why was the India Act passed? The East India Company was going Bankrupt. To Try the corrupt officials and remove them. To save the company from falling.
To strengthen hold over Indian land and trade as now the parliament had started to show keen interest in it. What were the reasons for the fall of East India Company? The company became bankrupt. It lost its monopoly. Other companies wanted to share the Indian trading monopoly.
British government achieved its purpose of capturing the subcontinent by blaming EIC of War of Independence. How did the British treat the lands they had taken control of? They tried to westernize different lands. They took complete hold over the major cities and states like Punjab. Obedient rulers were placed over smaller states. Some lands were taken from the rulers as hey were thought to be inefficient.
Briish tried its best to get maximum benefit from the lands they taken over. What did British do about religion in Subcontinent? They first try to adopt nuetrility.
Later they allowed Christian Missioaries to enter India to spread Christianity. The Entry of Christian Missionaries strengthened the beliefs of British and they started to belief themselves as superior.
The British and Christian missionaries became intolerant of Indian Values. Very few people changed their religion. What was the result of Indian Uprising in ? Relations between Indian and British worsened. Muslims simply refused to cooperate due to harsh treatment of British. The British presence was not accepted by overwhelming majority.
How did rebellion affect British? It cost them a great deal of money. It shocked the British. They realized that Indians had to be given some rights. They became harsh towards the Indians. Who was Warren Hastings? He was the First Governor General of Bengal. Previously he had worked with the East India Company and risen through the ranks. He took bribes in organizing these ventures and had to return to Britain facing charges of corruption.
He was cleared in the end but his reputation was ruined. How did introduction of Railway system played an important role in India? The Railway played an important role as it was used to transfer army effectively throughout India.
The Railway opened for public and became the main public transport to different cities. It played an important role in British Victory in the War of Independence for troops were quickly transferred from one place to another to put down rebellion.
It was important in communication because telegraph line was laid along railway line for sending instant messages. Why was British annexation over Sindh was considered a shameful British Act? British pride was hurt so to restore its pride it attacked Sindh.
British wanted to show Muslims they were Still powerful. British broke a Friendship treaty with rulers of Sindh. The British people considered it a wrong act in Britain. What was the Suez Canal Dispute? The Egypt decided to nationalize the use of this canal. British and French started War over the Canal as they wanted to capture the Empire.
British captured the Canal. What was the Black Hole Incident? The Incident in which many British people died. Nawab Siraj captured Fort William of Calcutta.
Islam upholds the golden principles of freedom, justice, brotherhood and equality but living for centuries with the Hindu community, the Muslims were gradually ignoring, consciously or unconsciously, these principles. Islam gives guidance for individual as well as collective life. It has its own principles such as ban on usuary, gambling, to refrain from all unlawful means of income and expenditure.
Again extravagance is regarded devilish. The rights of the neighbours are stressed which results in social security to all. God-fearing and belief in the Hereafter are the basis for the social life of the Muslims. Dream of Muslims to get freedom: Due to the ill treatment of Hindus and British the Muslims also wanted to get freedom and established their own Govt.
For this reason they demanded Pakistan. Narrow Mindedness of Hindus: The Hindu communitys narrow mindedness could be gauged from the fact that they do not feel ashamed of idol worship during the 20 th century even.
The women are considered slaves. They do not recognize the right of second marriage for the widow. They consider themselves much superior to the people of their own race.
The Hindus declare a thing polluted if it has been touched by a Muslim. There was a concept of caste systems in the Hindus itself. There was only one way of Muslims deliverance from such a narrowminded and prejudiced community, and that was a separate state comprising the provinces of Muslim majority, and as such they demanded a separate homeland. To get rid of the British: After the war of independence , the British maltreated the Muslims.
Political rights of the Muslims were snatched. Doors of new jobs were closed and also the Muslims were deprived of their jobs and were deprived of their property estates.
There was no social status for the Muslims. So they demanded separate homeland. Attainment of Peaceful Atmosphere:. After the formation of Mahasabha and its entrance into politics, prejudiced movements like Shuddhi and Sangthan were born.
Riots occurred here and there. They extinguished the fire of revenge by dishonouring the mosques or attacking Moharram processions. The daily increase in riots had given a warning to the Muslims. It is rightly remarked that the last 25 years were spent in Hindu-Muslim civil war.
Its cure was no other than the creation of Pakistan in the Muslim majority provinces so that the daily occurrences of riots may come to an end.
The Muslims may enjoy the peaceful conditions in a separate state of their own. Islamic Culture and Civilization: Success of congress in elections of and capturing the leadership was an enough proof that the Hindus wanted to demolish Muslim civilization and culture.
Every now and then new intrigues were hatched to destroy the Muslims religious values. The breeding of cows and to worship them was the reckoned culture of Hindustan. The Hindu community was planning to prevail upon Muslims in their customs and ceremonies. The Muslim ceremonies were interfered whereas the Hindu festivals of Diwali, Lorhis, Dasehra were celebrated with great pomp and show. In short, if India were not divided, this country would have become a pure Hindu State and the next generation of Muslims would have been Muslim only by name, but it would have been impossible for the Muslims to follow Islam practically.
Deliverance from Economic Exploitation: The Hindus community was not contented with the political rule; it was determined to worsen the condition of the minorities economically. But especially they wanted to take revenge from the Muslims for their past defeats. Under the patronage of the English, the Hindus were made the owners of the land.
They were encouraged in trade and commerce also. Only the trade of hydes and skins remained with the Muslims. They were encouraged in the trade of shining nature, or some factory, and that belonged to a Muslims, they started cut throat competitions.
So after being disheartened the Muslims had to leave the factory or trade. The Muslims had seen this state of affairs for years till they reached the conclusion that where the problems were settled by the votes of majority, it was hardly possible to live along with the prejudiced and cruel Hindu majority. The sole aim of the Hindus was to reconvert the Muslims to Hinduism and absorb them in that religion. So there was no room left for the Muslims except demanding a separate independent homeland, for themselves.
Muslim Unity: Muslims were dispersed in the 20th century especially after the failure of Khilafat movement. The Muslims wanted to become united again because. But the unity of the Muslim world cannot be possible without the creation of Pakistan. In short the Muslims demanded a separate state only because of their worse conditions and to save their national integrity.
Explain the Ideology of Pakistan in the light of the sayings of the Quaid-e-Azam? Pakistan is the only state that came into being on the bases of strong ideology. Since its establishment it has been demanded to accomplish its basic aim. The social or political Programme of any movement that becomes a collective objective of any nation is called Ideology. OR Ideology means such an aim according to which human beings planned about their future.
The Ideology of Pakistan The Ideology of Pakistan was the consciousness of the Muslims in the historical perspective of the south Asian sub-continent that they were a separate nation on the basis of the Islamic ideology. No doubt Islamic ideology is the base of ideology of Pakistan so the basic fundaments of Islam are also the bases of the Ideology of Pakistan. Actually ideology of Pakistan is the practical shape of the teachings of Islam.
Aslam Syed defined the ideology of Pakistan as. Ideology of Pakistan is the name of molding of individual and collective lives according to Islam and also of saving from conflicting ideologies. Ideology of Pakistan is the name of implementation of Islamic principles on persons. He struggled for the separate state on the bases of Islamic Ideology. He himself explained this basic ideology. In the annual meeting of at Karachi Quaid-e-Azam said while clarifying the relation of Pakistan and Islam: What is that relation which has made Muslim a single body?
What is that rock on which the structure of Muslim Nation is restored? What is that base which has secured the safety of the boat of this Muslim Nation? That relation, rock and base is the Holy Quran. While addressing the students, in March, he said, Our guide is Islam and this, is the complete code of our life.
We neither need any red or yellow flag nor do we need any Socialism. Communism, Nationalism or any other ism. On 21 March, while addressing the people in Dhaka and said, I want not to see you to talk as a Sindhi, Balochi, Punjabi and Bengali.
What is the fun of saying that we are Punjabi, Sindhi or Pathan? We are only Muslims. While addressing at Aligarh he clarified the ideology of Pakistan in these words: What was the motive of the demand for Pakistan and a separate electorate for Muslims?
What was the cause of the division of India? Its cause is neither the narrow mindedness of Hindus nor the tactics of The British but is the basic demand of Islam? In the light of the history of the subcontinent Quaid-e-Azam argued that Muslims have never been a minority. They are a perfect nation and have the right to establish an independent state in those areas where they are in majority. While addressing the students of lslamia College, Peshawar on 13 January Quaid-e-Azam said, We did not demand Pakistan just to own a piece of land but we infact wanted to have a Laboratory for experimenting the true teachings of Islam.
Addressing the army officers, in October, , Mr. Jinnah said, Our object was to create such a state where we can live freely, our culture and civilization get flourished, and where Islamic concept of social justice can flourish exactly.
On the eve of inaugurating the State Bank of Pakistan on 1 July , the Quaid said, The Economic system of west is creating unsolvable problems for humanity. It has failed to provide justice to the people. We are to present an economic system based on original Islamic concept equality and social justice.
He was a great supporter of two-nation theory and he considered the Muslims a separate nation from every aspect. He said: The Muslims are a nation by every right to establish their separate homeland. They can adopt any mean to promote and protect their spiritual, moral, economic, social, political and cultural interests. Origin of Pakistan Pakistan existed from centuries. North West remained a homeland of Muslims.
Independent states of Muslims should be established in these areas so that they might live according to the teachings of Islam. Separate Status of The Muslims: No Act or Law would be acceptable which deny the separate status of the Muslims. Quaid-e-Azam said in his presidential address at Lahore on 23rd March about the demand of separate homeland for the Muslims as: Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religions based on totally different beliefs, and present the different ideologies.
They have different epics, different heroes and different history. It would be better for the British government to partition the sub-continent by keeping in view the interests of the two nations. It will be a correct decision religiously and historically. On 1st October , while addressing the officers of the Government of Pakistan, he said, Their mission is the establishment of a state where they could live like free people in their own socio-cultural set up necessary for the promotion of social justice and Islamic ideology.
What is the relation which has made Muslims a single body? What is the rock on which the structure of Muslim Nation is standing? What is the base which has secured the safety of the boat of this Muslim Nation? The Quaid-e-Azam while talking to an American journalist said about the making of constitution of Pakistan.
Pakistani constitution is yet to be made but I can say for sure that it would be of democratic type and would consist of the basic principles of Islam. These principles can be implemented on our practical life as they were years ago. During the Congress rule from to , the treatment to the Muslims convinced them of their destination.
Quaid-e-Azam in clear words said: The Britain wants to rule India, Mr. Gandhi and the Congress want to rule India and the Muslims. We say that we will not let either the Britain or Mr. Gandhi to rule Muslims, we want to be free.
Quaid-e-Azam had a strong belief in achieving his goal. We cannot be moved or diverted from our purpose and objective by threats or intimidations. We must be prepared to face all difficulties and consequences, make al the sacrifices that may be required of us to achieve the goal we have set in front of us.
With the will of Allah, the Muslims were able to establish Pakistan. ON that occasion, on 15th August, he said: Muslims of India have shown to the world that they are a united nation, their cause is just and righteous which cannot be denied. Let us, on this day, humbly thank God for His bounty and pray that we might be able to prove that we are worthy of it. This day marks the end of a painful phase in our national history and it should also be the beginning of a new and a noble era. Once he said after the creation of Pakistan.
There is no any power in the world who demolishes Pakistan. According to his ideas Islam was the only base of The Ideology of Pakistan. Explain the Ideology of Pakistan in the light of sayings of Allama Iqbal? No doubt Islamic ideology is the base of ideology of Pakistan so the basic fundamentals of Islam are also the bases of the Ideology of Pakistan. Ideology of Pakistan and Ideology of Islam have same meaning.
Actually ideology of Pakistan is the practical shape of teachings of Islam. Ideology of Pakistan is the name of molding of individual and collective lives according to Islam and also of saving form conflicting ideologies. He clearly explained the Ideology of Pakistan in his sayings and poetry.
Aflame Iqbal and Ideology of Pakistan:. Allama lqbal made it clear that the Muslims have the separate recognition from the Hindus on the base of religion and culture. In this regard he said India is not a country, it is a Sub-continent of human beings belonging to different languages and practicing different religions. Muslim nation has its own religious and cultural identity. Allama lqbal was strongly against the western concept of Democracy.
Despite flourishing all over the world, this system cannot provide solution of the problem of Islamic world.
Iqbal was of the view that all social and political problems can be solved with the help of Islamic system. He said, Western democracy is devoid of depth, it has merely an attractive out look. Muhammad Allama lqbal was great supporter and preacher of separate Muslim state. Whether India gets independences under the crown of England or out of it, I think independent state of western provinces is the destiny of the people living there.
I remained the supporter of this idea but now I am of the view that preservation of separate nationhood is useful for Hindus and Muslims. To have the concept of single nation in India is no doubt poetic and beautiful but impractical regarding present circumstances.
Concept of Two Nation Theory: Despite living together for years, Hindus and Muslims have their own individual ideologies so the only solution of political conflict in India is to have a separate independent parliament for each nation. Once he said in this regard as: Concept of nation and homeland is confusing the Muslims. That is why Islamic humane objects are becoming dim. It is also possible that these concepts may destroy the real concepts of Islam. Allam Iqbal was in the favour of basic concept that politics is a part of religion Islam and Islam provides complete guidance about it, Islam does not consider matter and soul separate from each other.
Allah, Universe and state all are the basic elements of single unit. Man is not so alien that he should leave worldly affairs for the sake of religion. In the annual meeting of Muslim League on December 29, at Allahabad, he said, Islam is not the name of some beliefs and customs but it is a compete code of life. In, Europe, religion is every ones personal matter which divides the human oneness into two opposite parts i. In contrast to that in Islam, God, Universe, soul, matter, sate and religions are bound to each other or in other words Muslims are one nation.
In his Allahabad address he said: Islam is a lively power which frees human mind from thoughts country and race. If we understand this thing then we can be the leaders of prominent Indian civilization. Allama Iqbal said in relation to Islam: The lesson which I learnt from history is that Islam always helped the Muslims. Even today, Ideology of Islam can save your being from destruction by uniting your divided powers.
On the publication of his poem, Khazr-e-Rah people started to call Allama Iqbal as communist. He rejected this balance firstly in his essay and then in a letter to All-e-Ahmed Sarwur in To me capitalism, communism and other isms of this world have no importance. Islam is the only reality which is the reason of salvation. To have a contract with any other ism is just like to be out of Islam. He described the reason of opposition of nationalism in the words: I am opposed to nationalism, not because if it is allowed to develop in India.
It is likely to bring less material gain to Muslims. I am opposed to it because I see in it the germs of atheistic materialism which I look upon as the greatest danger to modern humanity.
The fact is that even the enemies acknowledge that it was Iqbal who made the idea of a distinct Muslim Nationhood crystal clear in the minds of the masses. A bigoted Hindu leader Madan Mohan Malwiya once remarked. Before Iqbal, we had not the slightest idea that the Muslims possessed a separate existence in India.
We regarded them to be a part of a common nationalism. Allama Iqbal not only put forward the proposal of Pakistans creation by uniting the Muslim majority provinces of north-western India, he also explicitly pointed out the foundations on which this state was to be established and was to function. To address this session of All India Muslim League you have selected a man who is not despaired of Islam as a living force for freeing the outlook of man from its geographical limitations, who believes that religion is a power of utmost importance in the life of individual as well as states.
Allama Iqbal was a great supporter of Muslims Unity. He also declared that there is no any concept of discrimination on the base of colour, cast and creed in Islam.
The message of unity of the Muslim World can be seen in his poetry as. Geographical Limitations of Mankind Compiled by: Hafiz Ashfaq Ahmad. According to Allama Iqbal, Islam is a practical way to eliminate the artificial distinctions of race and nation and to transcend beyond the geographical limitations of mankind. He wanted to established Muslim nationality on ideological lines: Allama lqbal categorically stated that the Hindus and the Muslims cant live together in one state, and that the Muslims would succeed in making their own separate state sooner or later.
He advocated the separate nationhood of Muslims. Describe the importance of the Ideology of Pakistan. Following are the bases of its ideology. Right of Self Determination In the decent civilizations of the world, right of self determination has got the place of basic human right.
The Muslim of sub-continent work hard for the attainment of right of self determination, on the base of this right the Muslim demanded separate electorate in and this right was awarded to the Muslim in s Minto Morley reforms.
Because of the ideology of Pakistan, the Muslims of India who had become a minority due to the western democracy became a great nation. Because of the ideology of Pakistan the Muslims of India got freedom and they got social betterment. In addition to that other nations like Sikhs, Hindus and Christians had other benefits out of that. Along with that tension the events of terrorism also ended. They both got peaceful atmosphere which is necessary for the development of any society. Symbol of Security of the Muslims The ideology of Pakistan is very important for the Muslim of the Sub-Continent after the start of this theory the Muslims feel better and secured in the SubContinent.
The people who believe the ideology of Pakistan although belong to different races and different areas, are united. Because of this natural unity, they can defeat foreign conspiracies and enemies of Pakistan. Ideology of Pakistan is based on Islamic ideology and exemplary principles of Islam.
There is no any discrimination on the base of colour cast, creed, state or a country in Islam and Pakistan is obtained on the base of Ideology of Pakistan. So the unity of the Islamic world is the key factor of the foreign policy of Pakistan and Pakistan tried his best to create the harmony and unity of the Muslim World.
Source of Power Islam gave the concept of two nation theory in sub-continent and secured the separate recognition of the Muslims in sub-continent. Two nation theory protected the Muslims in the hour of need especially in British rule, thats why ideology of Pakistan is the source of power in the sub-continent on which base the Muslims struggle hard for the attainment of Pakistan. Finally they succeed to achieve Pakistan. Formation of Exemplary Society The Muslims wanted to establish the exemplary society in the sub-continent but this dream couldnt be fulfill in the united India.
Muslims of India had a brilliant chance to build and exemplary society in Pakistan after the creation of. According to the constitution of Pakistan, government is responsible for the security of basic human rights. This thing is necessary for an exemplary society. In The British took-over the whole sub-continent and Muslim became their ruled.
In the 18th and 19th century The British increased their efforts to spread Christianity and Hindus started to spread Hinduism. Under these conditions the ideology of Pakistan saved them from such spreading. The protection of Muslim Culture and Civilization is only possible the ideology of Pakistan. Symbol of Beneficence of the Society The progress of the Muslims of the sub-continent was hidden in the aim of getting Pakistan which was lightened by the creation of Pakistan.
Besides, ideology of Pakistan is ideology of Islam so it is in a way a source of beneficence on the Day of Judgment. Reason of Human Dignity The basic aim of creation of Pakistan was the formation of such state where Muslims can live their individual and collective lives according to the principles of Islam. In addition to that there they can make such a society where courageous and morally high people dominate.
This heightens the human dignity. Creation of Pakistan up to a high extent fulfilled this aim. Source of Economic Development of the Muslims Ideology of Pakistan is source of economic development of the Muslims, because after the creation of Pakistan, Muslims got the freedom from The British, and Hindu landlords.
Exploitation of Muslims of the sub-continent came to an end. And they became strong economically. Industrial and Mineral Development After the creation of Pakistan, Muslims used their capabilities in finding and using the minerals blessed by God and made progress in the field of industry and minerals.
Establishment of Welfare State. On the basis of ideology of Pakistan separate state for the Muslims was to be established. Success for the Muslims Ideology of Pakistan is the source of success for the Muslims in the world.
Due to the separate state, the Muslims became prosperous and they adopted Islamic ways of life. They obey the Islamic principles and follow Islam and start to spend of their lives according to Islam and introduced Islamic ethical system which led to the success of the Muslims both in this word and the life after the death. Write a comprehensive note on Two Nation Theory? Though the Muslims and the Hindus both have been living together for centuries, yet they could not merge with each other.
According to the holy Quran, the concept of one nation was produced before Adam. Quran says: We Said: Go down, all of you from here; but verily there cometh unto you from Me a guidance; and who so follow My guidance, there shall no fear come upon them neither shall they grieve.
But they who disbelieve and deny Our revelations, such are rightful owners of the fire. They will be therein. Islam and Two Nation Theory: Islam has different character and temperament. The concept of Two Nations was given by Islam 14 hundred years ago. According to Islam there are only two nations in the world; Believers and Non believers. In the subcontinent Two Nation Theory is as old as the history of the Muslims.
They were living in the geographically connected areas. They were the citizens of one country. There was no huge difference between their customs. In spite of all these common things, religious fervor had provided them such a strong b ase for nationalism which altogether made the Muslims and everything different from Hindus. It is clear from the words of the Quaid-e-Azam: Pakistan was created on the very first day when first Hindu accepted Islam in India 1.
If Muslims want to live like a live nation then they will have to get rid of all those paganism. They will have to live separately from Hindus. If this consciousness of separate nationalism is not produced among the Muslims then the fear is that they would be swept away in the flood of one-nationhood. Shah Wali Ullah was also a great supporter of two nation theory. He saved the Muslims of the sub-continent at that time when the Muslims decline was started after the death of Aurangzeb Allamgir in He also advised the Muslims to give up Hindu and Un-Islamic values.
He considered that the Muslims are the separate nation from Hindus. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was the first Indian Muslim political leader who used the word Nation for the Muslims of the sub-continent in During the Urdu Hindi Controversy he came forward with two nation concept and declared that the Muslims were a separate nation, having their own culture and civilization.
He talked to Mr. Shakespeare, Governor of Banaras and explained the two nation theory as: Hindi Urdu conflict is the starting of the space of separation between Hindus and Muslims which will gradually increase and a day will come when both the nations will separate from each other after division. Allama Iqbal awakened the Muslims of sub-continent with his poetry to demand a separate homeland. He led the Muslims at every step and rendered great services for the establishment of Pakistan.
Allama Iqbal considered Islam as a complete code of life. He said that he was fully convinced that the. Muslims of India would ultimately have a separate homeland, as they could not live with the Hindus in united India. The evolution of the Two Nation Theory got momentum slowly. Allama Iqbal clearly stressed the need of a separate state by including the province of NWFP, in his address at Allahabad in But the British and the Hindus did not agree to it.
The foundation of Two Nation Theory was laid on the day when the first non-Muslim of sub-continent became Muslim. This two-nation theory was originated with the arrival of the Muslims in the sub-continent. India is neither a country nor its inhabitants are a nation. This is a sub-continent where many nations live; among these the Hindu and the Muslim are two important nations. On 24th June, John Bright gave the concept of a separate state for the Muslims of the sub-continent.
In , on the basis of separate identity, Maulana Ashraf Ali Thanvi talked about separate state of the Muslims. In , on the basis of separate identity, Murtaza Makesh talked about separate state of the Muslims.
The Quaid-e-Azam was a big supporter of two-nation theory. He said,. Importance of Two Nation Theory: The entire freedom movement revolves around Two Nation Theory which became the basis of demand for Pakistan. It means that the Muslim of the sub-continent were a separate nation with their distinct culture, civilization, literature, history, religion and social values.
Islam, the religion of the Muslims was based on the concept of Tauheed and therefore could not be merged in any other system of religion. He challenged the might of Akbar, the great Mughal emperor, to re-establish to glory of Islam which had been gravely threatened by the anti-Islamic trends of Akbar.
He was a prominent disciple of Khawaja Baqi Billah, an eminent saint of the Naqshabandia spiritual order. Sheikh Ahmad was drawn into mysticism by his father. Sheikh Abd-al-Ahad, a prominent Sufi and scholar. He received Khilafat from his father in the Chishtiya and Suhurwrdiya spiritual orders. Early Education He received education under the most prominent and learned teachers at Sialkot and Sirhind.
He memorized the Holy Quran and then switched over to the study of Hadith, Tafsir commentary and Maqual philosophy. He traveled from place to place to benefit from the renowned scholars. During his wandering to quench his thirst for the mystical knowledge he came into contact with the leading lights of Akbars court Abu-al-Fazl and Faizi. When Abu-al-Fazl and Faizi learnt of his brilliance and extraordinary mystical insight, they tried to draw him into the Court of Akbar.
Sheikh Ahmad wrote his famous book, Isbat-un-Nabuwwat affirmation of prophet hood in which he gave an excellent explanation of the prophet hood. Akbar had no leanings towards Islamic principles and tenets. He promoted Hinduism by marrying Hindu ladies and by allowing free access to the Rajputs and Hindus in his court.
He also appointed Hindu Rajputs on higher civil and military positions. Opposition of Din-i-Ilahi:. He assumed the title of Mujadid-i-Azam and Imam-i-Adil and issued orders pertaining to the religious matters which were to be considered as authentic and final. The impact of Din-i-Ilahi greatly affected the Muslim beliefs and trends.
It split the Muslim society into several factions and promoted heretic attitudes and practices. Social Reorms: At that time Muslim society was ridden with un-Islamic practices and trends. Under the Hindu influence, a firm and widespread belief in Karamat miracles of the saints had developed in the society which greatly misguided the innocent people.
In Sufism many means of developing magical and supernatural powers, alien to Islam, had been developed. Reforms in Tasawaf Spirituality: The mystics and Sufis of those days openly denied the authenticity of Sharia by declaring Sharia the law of Islam as superficial and external. They even proudly manifested their indifference towards the Sunnah or Examples of the Prophet peace be upon him. The ulema and theologians ceased to refer to the Quran and Hadith in their commentaries and considered jurisprudence as the only religious knowledge.
By these trends the religious spirit excessively diminished and gave rise to the juristic view of Islam. Purgation of Muslim Society: Sheikh Ahmad undertook the job of purifying the Muslim society of un-Islamic tendencies by sending a number of his disciples in all directions to preach the true Islam. He asked them the emphasis on Ittibat-i-Sunnah following the examples of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him , and the commandments of Sharia in their sermons and preachings.
The work was vigorously pursued in India and other neighbouring Muslim countries. Sheikh Ahmad also began a correspondence with the prominent scholars of all Muslim countries. In his letters he explained the religious doctrines and put great stress on the Ittibat-i-Sunnah.
Struggle Against Atheism: Sheikh Ahmad was greatly opposed to the atheism and openly denounced un-Islamic society. He worked very hard to restore the original teachings of Islam and emphasized on the concept of Tauheed. He exposed the fallacy of Din-i-Illahi and came out with full vigour to curb the influence of this satanic creed. He urged the Muslim to order their lives according to the principles of Islam.
He declared that mysticism without Shariat was misleading and denounced those Ulema who had questioned the authority of Sharia.
Reformation of Nobles: Sheikh Ahmad stressed on the Muslims to revert to the purer Islam by giving up heretical customs and practices. He laboured diligently to settle the differences between the scholoars and the mystics. He initiated the leading nobles near the emperor into his discipleship and through them exerted an influence to bring about a change in the life of the Court.
He also persuaded the great men of Jehangirs period to take an oath of Allegiance at Sheikh Ahmads hands. In the time of Jehangir Sheikh Ahmad was successful to a greater extent to extract a solemn undertaking from the Muslims that they would not obey any orders repugnant to Islam.
Sheikh Ahmad adopted an effective method of persuasion by writing letters to the leading nobles of the royal court. He began addressing letters written in a language, which would move mountains, to leading nobles of the state, bemoaning the sad state in which Islam had fallen in India, and reminding them of their duty. Emphasis on Islamic Values: Sheikh Ahmad persuaded the Muslims to adopt simple habits in life and to strictly adhere to Namaz.
He also explained the utility of Fasting and declared that fasting protects the mankind from many sins. His efforts contributed a great deal towards the popularity of Islam in the sub-continent. Two Nation Theory: Sheikh Ahmad was a staunch advocate of the separateness of the Muslims and desired to maintain the distinctive image of the Muslim Nationalism. He laid great emphasis on the separate identity of the Muslims and adopted a very stern attitude against the Hindus.
Sheikh Ahmad firmly believed in Two-Nation Theory. He was in favour of maintaining the differences between Hindus and Muslims. He wanted Jizya to be re-imposed on Hindus and demanded the destruction of Hindu temples. They believed that the entire Universe is the symbol of Almighty God and a source of revelation of Gods sovereignty. The advocates of Wahdat-ul-Wajud believed that there was no living difference between the Man and his creator God and both individual and God are not separated from each other.
They also believed that every particle of the universe represented the presence of God and, therefore, the worship of Gods creature amounted to the worship of God.
Sheikh Ahmad openly negated this philosophy and declared it as ultra vires to the principles of Islam.
He presented his philosophy of Wahdat-ul-Shahud which meant that the creator and creatures were two different and separate entitles. Struggle Against Jehangir's Policies: Sheikh Ahmad also dealt with matters, other than religious revival in his letters. This policy drew him into serious difficulties. Asif Jah, the Prime Minister of Jehangirs court alerted Jehangir of the mounting popularity of Sheikh Ahmad by inciting the Emperor that Sheikh Ahmads anti-Hindu views were creating unrest in the country.
Jehangir summoned Sheikh Ahmad to his court and asked him to explain his statements. Sheikh Ahmad appeared in the royal court in a highly dignified manner and explained his statements in a courageous style.
Someone pointed out to Jehangir that Sheikh had not performed that act of Prostrations. Jehangir, infuriated over this blunt reply ordered the Sheikh to be imprisoned in the Fort of Gawaliar. Struggle during Imprisonment: Sheikh Ahmad did not shirk his preaching of Islam during his imprisonment. After two years, Jehangir feeling repentful, released him from the fort and venerated him with a dress of Honour and rupees for his expenses.
He was given the option of going back to Sirhind or remains in the royal court. Sheikh Ahmad preferred to stay in the royal court. In order to popularize Islam a number of Muslim reformers and revivers adopted a liberal point of view in their preaching so that a large number of people could be attracted toward Islam.
They, however, were successful to a great extent, but at the same time this liberal approach gave rise to the concept of joint nationalism. This trend proved injurious to the separate and distinct national image of the Muslims. Allama Iqbal poetphilosopher of the East has paid rich tributes to Sheikh Ahmad in one of his poems for refusing to perform the act of prostration before the emperor. Allama Iqbal considers him as the spiritual guardian of the Muslims of India.
His movement for the cause of Islam gave a new life to the Muslims and is regarded as the call back of Muhammad, which left far-reaching impact in religious and practical fields.
Death After living for three years with the emperor Jehangir, Hazrat Mujadid sought permission to leave for Sirhind. He passed away on December 10, A. Sheikh Ahmad, till the last breath of his life continued with the propagation of Islam. He drew a distinction between Islam and atheism. He considerably prevailed upon Jehangir to alter his religious view and abandon his fathers religious policies.
Jehangir under the influence of Mujadis preaching, order Khutaba holy sermon to be recited and cow slaughter to be carried out as required by Islamic principles, Jehangir also agreed to the construction of a big mosque on the advice of Mujadid. Hazrat Mujadid Alf Sani was the most powerful religious personality in the history of India. He was a widely read scholar and a magnetic orator. He got an opportunity in a liberal atmosphere in Jehangirs reign to use his powerful pen to denounce Akbars religious innovations.
Mujadid Alf Sani was the only individual in the history of India who opposed Akbar and thereby invited his wrath. He is considered as the pioneer of Muslim Self-assertion by denouncing un-Islamic practices.
In short Hazrat Mujadid-e-Alafsani checked the pressure of non Islamic customs, converted a great number of Hindus to Islam, provided pure Islamic teachings and eradicated the wrong ideas of so called Mystics.
We can say that he was the first person who understood the Hindu amalgamation in Islam and purified it. After the death of Aurangzeb the Muslim society faced some serious problems. The Mughal Empire had fallen into the hands of most incapable successors of Aurangzeb who could not withhold the supremacy of the Muslim rule because they indulged into luxurious life.
With the weakness of the Muslim Empire, Islam, the religion of the Muslims, faced serious problems. Birth and Early Life: Hazrat Shah Wali Ullah was born in a pious family of Delhi on 21 st February, , four years before the death of Aurangzeb. His real name was Qutub-ud-Din and later on came to be known as Wali Ullah for his pious habits. His father Shah Abdur Rahim was well-known for his piety and profound knowledge of Islam.
Shah Abdur Rahim was a Sufi and theologian. He was engaged in the compilation of Fatawa-i-Alamgiri by the emperor Aurangzeb. He transferred the Baia authority in sufism and Irshad spiritual education to Shah Wali Ullah at his death bed and said, his hand is my hand. After the death of his father Shah Wali Ullah began teaching at Madrassa Rahimiya of Delhi where he taught for 12 years.
Shah Wali Ullah received his early education in spiritualism and mysticism from his father. He memorized the Holy Quran when he was seven years old. He received education in Tafsir, Hadis and acquired spiritual discipline from his great father.
He also studied metaphysics, logic and Ilm-ul-Kalam under his father. Shah Wali Ullah excelled in every discipline of the Islamic learning.
He completed his studies in the fifteenth year of his age in all the prevalent customs and traditions of his country. He studies Sahih-i-Bukhari and often attended his father during the reading of the Holy Quran. Shah Wali Ullah also acquired knowledge of various branches of jurisprudence Fiqah. Shah Wali Ullah did not confine his appetite for knowledge to the study of theology but was equally well versed in the humanities branch of knowledge as well.
He went to Arabia for higher studies and performing Haj in He received education under the most capable teachers of Makkah and Medina. He also obtained the Sanad in Hadis from Sheikh Abu Tahir who possessed extraordinary intellectual potentialities. He came back from Saudi Arabia in Consequently an era of religious regeneration began with the emergence of Shah Wali Ullah a great Muslim thinker, reformer and Muhadis. Social Conditions: During these days political and social turmoil was rampant in the subcontinent.
Life, property and honour were not secure as there were a number of disruptive forces at work in the Muslim society. The Mughal Empire after the death of Aurangzeb, was in the hands of the incapable successors who were unable to withhold the glory of the empire. The Mughal Empire gradually began to collapse with manifest signs of decadence. Religious Conditions: The religious groups were also claiming their superiority and the tussle between the Shia and Sunni sects was posing serious threats to Muslim nobility.
Political Conditions: The stability and strength of Aurangzeb time was lacking in the political, social and religious sections of the society. The Marhatas and Sikhs had gained a firm foothold that usually raided the seat of the Government, Delhi, sometime occupying the old city physically for short durations.
The rise of Marhata might promote Hindu nationalism which intensified the social decay in the Muslim society. During his stay at Makkah Shah Wali Ullah saw a vision in which Holy Prophet peace be upon Him blessed him with the tidings that he would be instrumental in the organization of a section of the Muslim society.
So he set himself to work for the betterment of Muslim society. A brief description of his services is as under: Religious Reforms: Shah Wali Ullah immediately set himself to the sacred task of spiritual consolidation of Muslim society.
He prepared a few students and gave them knowledge in different branches of Islamic learning. They were entrusted with the job of imparting the knowledge to others. Shah Wali Ullah persuaded the Muslim to strictly follow the footsteps of the Holy Prophet peace be upon him.
He introduced the basic principles of Islam to the people. He advocated the Quranic education for the welfare and benefits of the Muslims and asked them to abandon un-Islam trends and practices. He urged the people to lead a simple life and avoid involvement in the luxuries of the world. He initiated tatbiq integration of the Muslim society which was on the verge of destruction. By adopting the method of tabiq he introduced liberal element and thus brought elasticity in the understanding of Islam.
He adopted a balanced approach and understanding towards religious matters. He thoroughly studied all schools of thoughts and expressed what was right and just in a mild and sophisticated way without hurting anyone. He removed misunderstanding to a larger extent, between Shais and Sunnis and in this way provided a spiritual basis for national solidarity and harmony.
He presented Islam in a more rational way to make it acceptable to the larger number of people.
He himself states, I was informed through Ilham inspiration that I would have to undertake this responsibility. The time has come when every injunction of the Sharia and the general instruction of Islam should be presented to the world in a ration manner. Shah Wali Ullah got in touch with rulers and impressed upon them to enforce Islamic laws. He also urged them to mould their lives, according to the Islamic way.
He educated the Muslim soldiers on the importance of Jihad and asked them to go for Jihad for the glorification of Islam. He asked the traders to adopt fair principles of trade as preached and practiced by the Holy Prophet peace be upon him. He informed the people about the sins of accumulation of wealth and asked time to keep as much wealth with founder of modern Muslim India and as such the father of modern Muslim India.
He produced illuminaries like Sir Syed Ahmad Khan who rendered meritorious services to the Muslims of India to draft their destinies. In his time the Shias and Sunnis were aggressively hostile to each other and their rivalry was damaging the Muslim unity. He refused to denounce Shias as heretics. Shah Wali Ullah adopted an analytical and balanced approach towards he four schools of thought of mysticism. In order to create a balance between the four schools, i.
Political Reforms: Apart from imparting religious education of Muslims, Shah Wali Ullah also provided leadership to the Muslim in the political field. He came out with his great wisdom and foresight to create political awakening in the Muslims of India. The rise of Marhatas and Sikhs had posed serious problems to the Muslim rulers.
The Mughal rulers were no more in a position to withhold the supremacy of the Muslim rule which was gravely jeopardized by the emergence of the Sikhs, Marhatas and other non-Muslim forces.
Shah Wali Ullah came up to tackle his precarious situation. He had rightly noticed that if the Marhatas are not checked effectively the political power of the Muslims would disappear for ever.
He wrote letters to the leading Muslim nobles and informed them of the critical situation hanging on the head of the Mughal rule. He asked chieftains to come around.
However, the Muslim chiefs were unable to face Marhatas effectively. Their resources were inadequate to crush the Marhatas power. He advised the Muslims to be united for the sake of Muslim society. And keep in mind the Islamic teachings of brotherhood. He taught them to work for the betterment of humanity and to follow the teachings of Islam regarding Non-Muslims. He was a great advocate of human rights especially of NonMuslims.
He played a vital role to make Muslims a strong nation on the bases of their Culture, History and heritage. His teachings proved helpful and saved Muslim culture from the amalgamation of Hindu customs. Literary Services of Shah Wali Ullah Shah Wali Ullah wrote 51 books, on mysticism and other branches of Islamic learning which deal with religious, economic and political problems.
His outstanding work was his translation of the Holy Quran into simple Persian language which was the literary language of his days.
He produced this masterpiece of literature in which invited great criticism from the orthodox Ulema who threatened him even with death. Shah Wali Ullahs translation was an exceptional act as there had never been a translation of the Holy Quran before in a foreign language. His translation brought the knowledge of the Holy Quran within the reach of an average literate person who found it easier to read and understand the Holy Quran in a language other than Arabic. Hujjat-ullah-al-Baligha is another famous work of Shah Wali Ullah.
In this work Shah Sahib has discussed in details the reasons of the social and religious decay of the Muslims. He has also discussed the importance of application of Ijitihad in his book and has mentioned the intellectual and scholastic requirements of a Mujtahid priest. He describes that the God Almighty chose him as an intermediary to establish a new order in his time.
Beside the above mentioned works Shah Wali Ullah wrote many other books on different topics. Social Reforms: He took following steps to beware the Muslims of these problems: He told the Muslims to avoid superstitions, charm wearing and other such practices. He also struggled against the dowry and other such unnecessary expanses on the time of marriage. He tried to abolish mourning on death more than three days as it was against Islamic teachings. He advised the Muslims to work for lawful earning and to avoid Usury interest on loan.
He also worked against the unjust distribution of wealth. He preached simplicity. He worked against the sectarianism and grouping. Madrassa Rahimia: Madrassa Rahimia and other institutions founded by him, imparted education in the light of his works. A bunch of religious nationalist was prepared by these schools who interpreted Islam according to his doctrines. Shah Abdul Aziz, the eldest son of Shah Wali Ullah led these religious nationalists to wage Jihad for the liberation of Muslim India and ultimately to build edifice for a Caliph state on the principles of Islam as described by Shah Wali Ullahs doctrines.
In short Imam-ul-Hind Hazrat Shah Wali Ullah, a great saint, scholar and reformer is one of those great personalities of Islam who, with his dedicated services had brought the Muslim society together on the stable foundations. He continued the work of Hazrat Mujadid Alf Sani and struggled for religious, cultural political and social revival of the Muslims. This movement was not only for the revival of Jihad for the destruction of British rule in India but also for the purification of Muslim Society.
He was born on October 24, in a respectable family of Rai Barily. Beginning of Career: From the very beginning he had an inclination of becoming a solider rather than endeavoring to become renowned scholar or mystic as did his predecessors. During his service Syed Ahmed learnt military discipline and strategy which made him a great military commander in the years to come. In he took the oath of allegiance baia at the hands of Shah Abdul Aziz and entered the fold of Naqshbandia, Qadriya and Chistiya sufi order.
Syed Ahmed as a Preacher: In , Syed Ahmed wrote Sirat-i-Mustaqim. In this project his two distinguished disciples, Shah Ismail Shaheed and Maulana Abdul Haye, assisted him in the preparation of the book.
The work is an excellent summary of the philosophies, doctrines and reforms of Shah Wali Ullah which he had expressed in a number of his famous books. At this moment Syed Ahmed switched over to the public preaching.
He proved a great success, as a preacher, in spite of the lesser rhetoric in his sermons. Beginning of Jihad Movement: Syed Ahmed was extremely dismayed to see the decline of the Muslims in their religious and ideological commitments. He earnestly desired to see the restoration of the supremacy of Islam in India. The purpose of his life and struggle was not confined to the spread of Islam by preaching only, but he believed in taking practical steps for this purpose.
The main objective before Syed Ahmed was the establishment of a state which was based on Islamic principles. In , he started.