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Academic and Everyday, red. Jest np. So 35 years which are supposed to divide us from the prophetic singularity is deinitely too short a time for a new transhuman quality to develop. We will be able to connect neurochips following the connectome pattern, so that the entire system can work in a way analogous to our brains. Odzyskiwanie map i kartograia 63 A. This is why trans- humanism is sometimes accused of being a form of eugenics. Associated Press, for example, ofers automatons which summarise stock exchange events and various numerical data.
Ray Kurzweil, inventor e.
Kurzweil is waiting for the singularity — the moment in which the technological change will be very radical, and will make technology a medium for everything, redeining our lives.
The singularity is the key notion in his thought. Transhumanism is not only the belief in improving the individual, but also a social and political project.
These are issues transhumanists struggle with, because they cannot provide a precise-enough image. This is why trans- humanism is sometimes accused of being a form of eugenics. I believe these accusations are not groundless. Left-wing transhumanism tries to ight it. It postulates cascading changes. Transhumanism attracts supporters among technological elites — a large number of Silicon Valley inhabitants, hired in technologi- cally progressive start-ups, follow the movement.
Mark Zuckerberg has established prizes for ground-breaking research into human life extension. We hear a lot about seemingly extravagant projects of this kind, about the approaching singularity, but Transhumanism attracts supporters what we lack is debate and the space among technological elites — a large to look from a distance at what these number of Silicon Valley inhabitants, projects tell us about our condition as hired in technologically progressive Western civilisation, and also which start-ups, follow the movement development scenarios we see for ourselves.
The transhumanist revolution continues, not only as a subject for eccentric visionaries from Silicon Valley and beyond. Michel Houellebecq, in his novel The Possibility of an Island, introduced the idea to mainstream literature. It has been a subject of interest for Peter Sloterdijk2, as well as — recently — conservative French philos- 2 P. Technologies supporting the human intellect: Things which appeared impossible a decade ago, such ne, deux destins, http: Artiicial intelligence systems www.
Are we bound to achieve immortality? Will culture survive in the transhuman world? Does technological development change the ways in which we think? Dimensions of technological control There are many examples which prove that the technological revolution is already advanced.
For example, wearable technologies supporting the Internet of Things, or neurotrackers — a new branch of wearable technologies, increasingly common among users. These devices are portable and fully commercialised, available to the average customer. Thus we see that increasingly diverse technologies, along with the development of the Internet of Things, occupy various areas of our lives.
Their potential, according to many of their creators, lies in the measurement of large groups and organisations, as well as in researching efficiency and creativity — decoding the mechanisms behind them and making the mind transparent. This discipline was deined in by Rosalind Picard. Afective computing includes methods of recognition of the emotional states of computer and mobile device users, based on various characteristics facial expression, body position, physiological parameters, voice, text, behavioural patterns ; methods of represen- tation of emotional states for the purpose of computer processing; creating affective applications; models of affective interventions; sentiment analysis in text; and the simulation of emotional states for the purpose of application in virtual characters.
Afective computing is another very strong link between humans and computers. There are an increasing number of these. Afective computing aims at quantifying our emotions, trying to put their chaos in order and make them more accessible for understanding to ourselves as well as for machines — our contemporary and future companions in civilisation. Technologies leave the walls of scientiic institutions and begin slowly to commer- cialise.
These possibilities are explored by projects such as Afectiva4 or Ellen5. Results can then be sold to the marketing and advertising departments of content-producing companies, as well as to shops, which can ind out how a customer reacts to the products on the shelves, and how to organise the display of products — without asking for opinions or conducting surveys or focus groups. On the basis of partial results, we can conclude that the diference between the approach to an adequately responding simple bot, and the approach to an anthropomorphised one e.
Emotion Recognition Software avatar is smaller than we previously expected. A few decades ago the and Analysis, www. Eliza was used as a psychotherapist. A therapeutic bot embodies the Rogerian psychologist in person-centred therapy. Would embodied robotics then be a method of developing self-accep- tance, or is a simulation more appealing? Which is the right strategy? In fact, contemporary robotics took up this challenge, currently investing in projects which can penetrate and get to know the real world, constructing complex mechanisms on the basis of simpler ones e.
The debate about technological acceleration is divided between the supporters of biocitizenship, biohacking and biofeedback, and Foucaultian analyses of self-tracking and monitoring as the most contemporary and person- alised form of biopower and full control over users. Discourses which help one think critically about these phenomena are certainly related to the concept of neurocapitalism: On the other hand, self-quantification cannot be denied its emancipatory potential: Are we ready for the changes and consequences which will follow — that within a decade or two there will be a number of non-human beings around us?
How will we react to them? Will we move Discourses which help one think in that direction? Is a transhuman being critically about these phenomena a relatively close vision? What can we expect of the development of research into the way our brains work and cooperate with other brains? The positive results of such research would radically modify our understanding of ourselves and the world we live in. In the near future, a synergy of IT, neurobiology and cognitive science will lead to the emergence of neurocognitive technology, whose inluence on society cannot be yet imagined.
It all begins with quantum physics, which enabled nanotechnology to come to life. Technologies which emerged from this branch became the bases for cognitive robotics, autonomous vehicles, intelligent personal assistants — and they are applied in a number of ways. How can we utilise human developmental potential to the full?
Obviously, there are many other areas whose development will radically change the world, such as the Internet of Things, synthetic biology, lab-grown organs and dna programming.
Even now, dna programming languages already exist which allow for the modiication of dna chain sequences and the introduction of other fragments, thus creating organisms with particular qualities.
Still, I will focus on research which afects our understanding of human nature — above all, of our brains. We consist of 50 trillion 50, billion cells! Comparing it to the complexity of the software which operates an android such as Bina48 shows how primitive the devices we can build are. Each of the 50 trillion cells contains an approximately two-metre-long dna chain.
Altogether, our bodies contain about billion kilometres of dna! This entire mech- anism depends on the genome, which contains only 20, genes — almost as many as C elegans, a small nematode with only neurons. Some cells live only for a few days, others — our entire life. The human brain itself contains nearly billion neurons connected by about 1, trillion synapses, and so we have about one million billion connections, emerging and modifying throughout the years.
The connections emerge so that a baby can understand what he or she sees, touches and hears, includes repetitive elements, can be interpreted, and enables interaction with the world. What is the intellectual life of such a complex organism like? In a few cases, internal life is very rich, but it can often be schematic.
On a cellular level, animals are almost as complex as humans, but their thinking abilities are frequently limited, and their reactions are instinctive based on embedded patterns. They interact with the environment in a very complex way, are able to survive in difficult conditions, move with agility, find food and process it into energy.
But only humans are capable of creating reined mental models. In , Chinook software beat Dr Tinsley, multiple champion, at a game of draughts, causing a shock. In certain areas, artiicial intelligence is already far ahead of us. In the case of chess, certain programs surpass human skill, so we can talk about computer superintelligence in this ield.
It seemed that in Go, the game considered the most diicult, achieving master-level skills would take many more years, but in early Google AlphaGo, based on deep learning algorithms and neural networks, beat multiple champion Lee Sedol, with the result Artiicial intelligence has made huge progress and appears in commercial applications, which is especially apparent in the recog- nition of structures, signals, speech and images.
Road sign recognition is a standard in many car models, as is autonomous parking, and soon we can expect full automation of driving. Why are we afraid of terrorists, but not of cars? Surgical robots such as Da Vinci still require the doctor to operate using available tools, but robots capable of performing surgery on their own already exist.
Machines begin to surpass us in abstract thinking as well as in the skills which require precise hand movements connected with thinking. In , Google received a patent for a method and computer system of robot personality development. In my futurological article from , I predicted that the need for robot personality designers would appear before the end of the decade.
A robot needs a personality in order to become more universal and to interact with humans. A more diicult challenge for robotics will be the requirements about materials, power, agility and speed of movement, and navigation, which will allow the robot to survive in a complex world.
Creating an artiicial rat which can survive in a hostile environment is already a challenge which requires the synergy of many functions. Building a robot which could beat humans at table tennis will be much easier than building a winning football team. Machines begin to surpass us in What are humans still better at?
We abstract thinking as well as in the desperately try to cling to something skills which require precise hand which will allow us to maintain our movements connected with thinking sense of superiority over machines.
But neurophysiolo- gists who research the brain know that evoking emotions and manip- ulating them is a simpler task than processing the information related to language and symbolic thinking. From an evolutionary point of view, language is our latest function.
Robots which read our emotions and react to them already exist: Paro the toy seal, Cuddler, Huggler, and other robots used in the therapy of people with depression and autism, or in the care of elderly people who have diiculties with communi- cation.
In the early 21st century, a new branch of artiicial intelligence emerged — afective computing. The most diicult task is gaining verbal dexterity.
This requires not only the knowledge of notions and the relationships between them, but also imagining a certain model of how the world looks. When we try to translate something, for example using Google Translate, an algorithm, based on a large number of texts in both languages, will try to translate single words, and then to match fragments from the language we translate to, copying longer phrases. This type of technology can be used for developing chatterbots.
Such algorithms can create templates, write screenplays for TV series or summarise TV and press news. Associated Press, for example, ofers automatons which summarise stock exchange events and various numerical data. This way, an automatic commentary sent by chatterbot can be made.
Bots try to move discussion towards a direction that is controlled by them, because they have a script with ready answers — it suices to notice keywords in a conversation in order to appear intel- ligent or ofer a sensible answer.
The Day a Computer Writes a Novel, a novel written by a computer and submitted to the Hoshi Shinichi Literary Award competition in Japan, was promoted to the second level of the competition. The Todai Robot Project aims to create software which will solve the entrance exams for Japanese universities. So far, Todai has managed to receive of the possible points in the standardised exams in Japan with a nationwide average of The creators of the project hope for the program to pass the especially diicult exams for the University of Tokyo — including exams on various subjects like history and literature.
Even in the s, computer algebra systems appeared which solved mathematical tasks in the entrance exams for MIT, better than the students could. This would be of great signiicance for medicine, but also for ten years. Within the framework of the Brain Initiative in the US, many interesting projects for mapping brain activity were created.
Within these large-scale projects, new algorithms for artiicial intel- ligence are being planned. These columns contain microcircuits. We have a detailed model of a cortical column, created in the Blue Brain11 project.
Equipped with a vast knowledge of the world and quick access to information, such an avatar will augment its user in a way: The goal of microns is also to ix damaged brains. With knowledge about what was damaged in the brain and where, it will be possible to implant new neurons there — or rather, stem cells developing into neurons.
In turn, new connections will emerge and ix missing functions — perhaps even adding new abil- ities to the brain. So far, our connection with computers is not that strong. We often use gps or Google Maps to ind directions, but not for advice with complex problems. Still, all our choices will slowly become more and more algorithm-driven. Right now, most of the information we receive is based on data collected about us. Google, Amazon and Netlix work this way: When we rent a ilm from Netlix, our previous choices are analysed, so we receive suggestions of potentially interesting ilms.
Banks do it when they grant loans, the stock exchange does it too — there, even microseconds matter when it concerns access to the central server. Social networks, increasingly frequented by bots, do it too.
Sellers hire a bot to advertise their products and to comment about them online. Because this is common, increasingly becoming managed by algorithms. If nothing changed, no trace in memory would remain. Constructing chips which could modify their structure phys- ically under the inluence of electrical low makes electronics akin to biological neural networks.
We could call it neuronics. This became possible thanks to memory storage, nanotechnology and under- standing the way the cortical columns and microcircuits in the cortex work. One artiicial neuron in the synapse-made TrueNorth processor requires about transistors, so a model of a neuron is not merely a primitive logical switch. The complexity of one such neuroprocessor is equal to 5.
Google, Amazon of power, while such a module uses and Netflix work this way: Still, we have to learn how to utilise such chips. They will soon appear in our phones and, after deep learning, algorithm-based training, will be able to recognise complex structures, voices, images, video and abstract relations.
In short, they will be able to see, hear and understand. In order for this to happen, we have to know which things connect in the brain and how various subnetworks process information. This is a modular structure in which not everything is intercon- nected.
From a functional point of view, when we hear, understand or use language, very complex communication occurs in the brain — almost all areas transfer information between each other, adding previ- ously remembered associations in order to recognise and interpret the signals.
The human brain has a similar structure, only more complex. Most complex activities are possible due to cooperation between multiple areas of the brain. Genetic determinism is a commonly known idea. Neural determinism is a lesser-known phenomenon. When someone grows up in a speciic environment, his or her behaviour and worldview will be diicult to change. In order to change the way of thinking, physical changes For the irst time in history, we have in the brain are necessary.
These can an artiicial system whose complexity happen slowly, or can be caused by nearly matches the human brain electric shocks or strong impulses from a magnetic ield. In such cases, neuro- plasticity grows and the brain can change, but such procedures are not in use because of ethical reasons. In order to understand the way the brain works, a metaphor is useful: We want to research this shadow in various ways, watching the way neurons connect in the brain, how neural energy spreads.
Events — especially traumatic ones — form new connective paths between neurons, spreading out in all direc- tions. Neurons have 10, inputs — they create an incredibly complex system. Why do they connect in this way and not in another? Where do our habits and memories come from? In the dialogues between the Indian king Milinda and the sage Nagasena, written down years ago, habits are explained using a water analogy: We know beautiful examples of stone erosion.
A similar erosion process occurs in brain matter: The brain needs to create , billion connec- tions — every second, millions of new ones emerge, and pre-existing ones are reinforced. The structure of connections in the brain makes it possible. In order to understand this better, we need to conduct a detailed analysis — divide the brain into, for example, 1, areas and ind out how activation spreads due to connections between those areas. This mechanism is used in analysis of the connectome — a collection of multiple connec- tions between areas of the brain.
We will be able to connect neurochips following the connectome pattern, so that the entire system can work in a way analogous to our brains. When we imagine something visual, the activity of the visual cortex increases. The EEG signal is dispersed. The frequency of impulses, along with time, space and energy, is information which we want to transfer into sounds and images.
We want to predict how the brain will be activated by various words. Neuroimaging observe processes in the visual allows us to observe processes in the cortex and the entire brain visual cortex and the entire brain — and, as a result, we can recreate the images we have in our heads.
The world of the mind ceases to be closed to an external viewer. To an extent, we can estimate what someone dreams 14 www. It requires recording the activity of the brain and waking up the person sleeping in the scanner in order to ask about his or her dream. After a longer series of experiments, we can — on the basis of brain activity alone — choose the most likely of 20 dream themes.
More detailed information can be received via a net of electrodes placed directly on the cerebral cortex. The device, called BrainGate Turning Thought into Action, allows for the collection of data from the cerebral cortex and for more precise operation than by EEG electrodes placed on the head. A really good signal can be achieved only through electrodes located on the cortex or in the brain. Currently such operations are performed only for medical purposes, but in the future we may increase the scope of our perception and steer our thoughts this way — as such technologies become safer.
We recognise characters, their actions, motivations, time and place. We can follow information processing step by step, using func- tional resonance. The brain segments the stream of events, as if editing a ilm. With every change in situation, a quick change in brain acti- vation coniguration follows. Interestingly, when we try to present the facts using logical formulas, activations difer than in the case of verbal interpretation, with the logical structure remaining in place.
What did I want to do? I went to the kitchen, and I forgot why; perhaps I had a diferent intention. Activations of this area are related to spontaneous self-relection. Sometimes, various alternative plans are made, and one of them is chosen at the very last moment. I become aware of what I want to do what my brain has planned , and I feel the will to act only at the moment in which the prefrontal cortex, which transfers information to the muscles, is stimulated enough.
When I discuss the issue of free will with my students and I explain these mechanisms to them, they usually say: Was it me or my brain? When we understand this problem, it can become the starting point on the way to actual change.
It appears that, using EEG, signals retrieved directly from the cortex, or those from electrodes implanted deeper in the brain, we can direct our own selves and change our behaviours in a more conscious way. In order to abstract our intentions from brain activity, it has to be processed in a very complex way, using machine learning algorithms.
It allows us to direct not only our own Our problem with understanding actions but, for example, could also the mind-body relationship is direct the actions of a distant robot. A thought-operated car travelled across the United States in , and later through Siberia. It requires stronger attention than during standard driving. We would like to read the states of the brain better and to connect them to mental states — in other words, to shift from objectively measured data to subjective experience.
Phenomenologists made some attempts at this in the s, but they failed. We have problems with accessing and describing the processes which take place in our brains.
But efective learning has to afect the structure of the brain, of memory, of associations and of functioning. The question is: Could I teach someone by forming a connection in their brain, without passing information on verbally? Would I be able to afect the associations forming in their brain? The subject of agency is widely researched. Stimulating the frontal cortex 16 Many experiments with a magnetic ield on one side of the brain may skew test results: Wegner w The any awareness that the result was inluenced by stimulation.
In order to focus on something, efort is necessary. What does it mean to concentrate on sensory cues or on abstract thinking? A cat waits tensely outside a mouse hole, and the neurons in its brain are working at high speed about 20 impulses per second to allow it to notice things and act quickly.
But when we observe something for a longer while — if we analyse images or travel by car — our attention disperses, and we may daydream or fall into microsleep.
Direct stimulation of the cortex using alternating current can help maintain concentration without mental efort. We observe our reactions and the reac- tions of others to our behaviour. We get to know ourselves by observing the low of information inside the brain, but also using the information we receive from outside.
Technologies of external control are obviously a subject of interest for the army. The transfer of skills between the expert and the student requires identiication of states of the brain and stim- ulation through the skull. Such attempts have already been made.
A message was sent from one brain to another using Morse code. Direct intervention in the brain is applied only in severe medical conditions. People with an implanted stimulator can regulate its inluence on their brains when they feel that their hands are too shaky or they begin to feel an internal compulsion driving them to act obsessively. Of course, instead of implanting electrodes, it would be better to use non-invasive methods like neurofeedback.
It can make us realise that our brains are unneces- I hope that our own research will allow sarily overstimulated and too prone to for the development of new, more distraction when we want to focus — for eicient neurofeedback methods example on dancing or music impro- visation.
Certain people with mental disabilities can display extraordinary skills — for example astonishing memory or numeracy. There are few people like this — only about cases of the savant syndrome have been described so far. People with such qualities are often incapable of self-suiciency and often have an IQ of between 40 and 70, which makes them dependent on permanent care.
Half of them are on the autistic spectrum. Allan Snyder from the University of Sydney conducted such an experiment. The assumption was that without unnecessary activations diverting energy, the brain should function more efficiently. To an extent, this proved true. Some people who took part in the experiment slightly improved their drawing or computer gaming skills. A utopian initiative named Project is aimed at enabling a complete mind transfer from a human brain to a neurocomputer.
We already have a neurocomputer that matches the brain in complexity, we will be able to create a convincingly brain-like 17 www. The Electronic Immortality Corporation17 believes that this should be possible by around How does the development of neurocognitive technologies and digital access to information influence people, their understanding of the world, and their relationships with others?
Marc Pronsky, in his well- 18 M. We learn the multiplication tables slowly. Carr, The of episodic and semantic memory. A number of articles have raised Shallows: Switching various areas of the brain on and of is very energy-consuming. We cannot self-regulate — and that turns out to be a key issue. We have problems with memory and the rational assessment of emotional situations, we develop bad habits, we blunt our senses. But at the same time, new possibilities of brain enhancement appear, and people sooner or later will begin to use them on a larger scale.
We can imagine sense-augmenting implants, like lenses or artiicial eyes which allow for long-distance viewing, can be turned into a microscope, or can see in UV and notice bacteria.
We can be sure that all these things will soon be possible. Ted Berger technologyreview. Perhaps we will replace parts of our brains one by one, in order to become fully- fledged cyborgs in the end. In such Which factors shape human nature? How is brain perfect. We have to remember that the we exist in, by literature or music? Changing the possibilities of perception through hearing, vision and other implants will impact the functioning of the brain and the way it perceives the world.
Systems which nearly match the human brain in complexity already exist. I have serious concerns that we have great opportunities, but also great dangers ahead. Everything may head in the right direction and help us answer currently unanswerable questions. Which factors shape human nature? What builds our images of the world, our memes? How do we develop human potential to the fullest extent, beginning from the earliest age, supporting development at every stage?
At the same time, we teach facts at school, not how to better understand ourselves. When we begin to consider technological development seriously, perhaps it can be utilised for good purposes. But it can also be the other way round, because brainwashing, manipulating public opinion and rearing fanatics are also within reach of brain-inluencing technologies.
Obligatory mind-controlling hats, known from science-iction stories, are not merely a fantasy, but a very real danger. An empirical answer can be obtained by tasking psychologists to determine whether they believe the new software-based mind appears to have a consciousness that is equivalent to that of its predecessor brain-based person.
I have set up an experiment to see whether or not this is so. A good barometer of the magniicent complexity of even a simple mind is that it takes the preceding 39 words to non-tautologically deine it. Throughout history there has never been a mind without a brain. The brain is to the mind as objects that are counted are to numbers.
Some physical substrates, such as brains and abacus beads, necessarily entail non-physical phenomena, such as minds and math. Such contentions form the basis of the Terasem Mind Uploading Hypothesis and the long-term public experiment of its validity. The purpose of this chapter is to describe and critique the Terasem Mind Uploading Experiment. Grassie, Metanexus, , p. In brief, the null hypothesis states that a panel of psychologists will not believe a software-based mind is a continuation of, or an analog of, a brain-based mind.
This hypothesis is a unique variant of the Turing Test. It might be called a Self-Turing Test, although, unlike the Turing Test, the assessors of consciousness are not blinded in their interactions with the actual and potential sources of consciousness.
Unlike with the Turing Test, the goal is not to trick the assessor into believing the artiicial consciousness is indistinguishable from the biological consciousness. An important point to illuminate is why there should be an expectation that mindfiles will capture enough about an original person for the experimental design to be interesting.
However, this is the right answer to the wrong question. The question is not whether one can replicate the 10 trillion synaptic strengths and yet greater number of connectivity of the human brain in a software matrix. This would be like trying to replicate human light by building an airplane out of a trillion micro-widgets in the exact same coniguration as found in an eagle or a sparrow. Instead, the goal here is to replicate the functionality of a speciic human consciousness in software.
Instead, we reason that software emulation of a human mind via analysis of a set of mind- iles is achievable because there are but a limited number of personality 6 J. In general, dozens of mannerism, personality and feeling types yield many thousands of unique human combinations via n! Once you add to these thousands of personality and worldview templates diferential recollections, beliefs, attitudes and values the gigabytes of remembered information there are many billions of unique possible combinations of human psyches, one of which will be a best-match for digitally stored mindiles on a predecessor biological person.
The Terasem Mind Uploading Experiment tests whether these combinations and correlations can be accomplished with software that need be nowhere near the complexity of synaptic connectivity of the human brain, and yet still appears as true to the original person as to persuade an expert panel of psychologists that the same personal identity is present.
Several parameters of the Terasem Null Hypothesis are open to exper- imental design. The speciic multi-decade timeframe of information technology bi-annual and decreasing doubling should be set Wall Street Journal, December 7, , pp. Hardware is only part of the problem, but growth rates in software efficiency are comparably impressive Instead, ciency are comparably impressive the mindware, or mind operating system, will be learning software Iterative internal quality assurance cycles will result in revisions until a stopping point is reached based on matches to pre-set parameters between the learned software-mind and all material elements of its biological precursor as relected in the mindile.
Self-awareness functionality will be activated once cyber-consciousness health and safety checks are complete. The number of mindiles and purported conscious minds to include in the dataset should be deined, as well as how they should be selected e. While a speciic experimental design has not yet solidiied these and other important open parameters, an experimental test of 12 R. Indeed, the current status of the Terasem Mind Uploading Experiment is primarily one of validating the utility of the mindile database tools, and secondarily commencing the long-term population of the mindile databases.
Should it ultimately be deter- mined that any particular database tool is of problematic value then such information will simply not be made available to mindware used to test the hypothesis.
Experimental bias would occur if the mindfile data being collected were altered based upon the endpoint assessments of the ultimate panel of psychologists. That is not occurring, as that endpoint is decades into the future - more than adequate time within which to fully parameterize the experiment.
If not they may be instead sufering from another type of mental or endocrine disorder, or may simply be evidencing cultural diversity, and in these cases should not be made the subject of irreversible surgery In many 15 L.
Gooren, Biological aspects of transsexualism and their relevance to its legal aspects, w Transsexu- alism, Medicine and the Law, Proc. In both cases one must judge if the consciousness being presented is a fake or is authentic. Does the consciousness Does the consciousness being being presented represent an authentic presented represent an authentic analog albeit with diferent gender or analog albeit with diferent gender substrate , or does it represent discon- or substrate , or does it represent tinuity such as a diferent personality discontinuity such as a diferent that has taken root in a new gender or personality that has taken root substrate?
In this test a purported trans- sexual must meet with two psychologists regularly over a period of a year. The two independent sources of mindiles are called CyBeRev. Each are free, not-for-proit websites at which unselected members of the general public have a practically unlimited ability to create mindiles that are used as databases for developing iterations of mindware.
The mindiles that may be created using a wide variety of autobiographical, human experience sampling tools are indicated in Table 1. No assumption is made as to whether some of these tools are more insightful than others. Members of the public make use of self-determined and thus randomly varying amounts of the tools. Some participants visit both websites, while most restrict themselves to either Lifenaut.
The video, photo, audio and text upload tools all also have the ability for the participant to provide keywords, free-form descriptions, importance weightings from 1 to 10 and categorization as primarily a relection of a mannerism, person- ality, recollection, feeling, belief, attitude or value.
Bainbridge inventory-based personality captures alone may be an adequate basis upon which to test the Terasem Hypothesis Mindile tools for personality capture, storage of digital reflections of consciousness at CyBeRev. The stafs of Terasem Movement Inc. Each staff is simply given the guidance that they are responsible for using their budget to obtain a mind operating system that will be able to replicate in software the human consciousness that gave rise to the mindiles in their databases.
They are told to expect that this will be a year project. Each has independently chosen to build their mindware eforts upon the foun- dation of existing chatbot software.
One group tmf uses a version of Jabberwacky21 upgraded with natural language processing, while the other group tmi uses a homegrown analog of a. Both chatbot systems incor- porate database look-up into the mindile of the person with whom a conversation is being attempted, as well as training algorithms that enable the participant to structure the conversational responses.
Both teams expect more sophisticated artiicial consciousness engines to incrementally replace these early artificial conversational entities over the next two decades, consistent with the timeframes projected by Kurzweil. My ield is an amalga- mation of philosophy, psychology, sociology and the medical sciences. Why Our We see everything as a giant experiment. For me, the most interesting Brains Are Wired to aspect of our meeting with Bina48 was observing our interactions Connect, Crown, There were questions about dreams, about books she would like to read.
Those questions were very human. We tried to make contact and to ind a shared ield of experience. Bina also asked us questions. She reversed the questions, directing them at us: I wonder if the questions we asked would have been the same if we had spoken to a voice alone or with a computer interface.
Having spent a lot of time in Silicon Valley, I remain a techno-optimist. We can see incredible progress in mindhacking and in biohacking the body. Oice jobs, which consist of repetitive activities performed in single cubicles, are actually a kind of manual work.
Manual, repetitive tasks will be delegated to machine learning. Taking one step on from DeepMind, if we manage to delegate simple linear thinking and manual work to machines, we will be able to do the things our minds are best at — collaboration, creativity, inventing new things. We also have more tracking applications. If we connect the data collected by them in order to receive biofeedback and eventually also mind feedback, we can achieve interesting results. Knowing how the brain works, and how we work as creatures, we will be able to inluence these.
We know that humans learn the quickest when they receive feedback almost immediately with their actions. Research conirms that in order to create something valuable, one has to engage deeply in the subject. Transhumanism, I believe, will support the idea of cooperation on deep levels.
Someone said that if artificial intelligence or the singularity really arrives, they will take a diferent form than we expect. Mateusz Hohol: I perceive Bina48 as a link between simple robotics like the iRobot, which can vacuum my house, and a more complex form which interacts with the social environment. Using cues from popular culture, we could compare Bina to a link leading to the construction of Data, the android from Star Trek. Bina can obviously be perceived Bina can obviously be perceived as as a laboratory which can replace a laboratory which can replace thought thought experiments traditionally experiments traditionally used by used by philosophers of the mind philosophers of the mind.
She tries to be tricky, to ask uncom- fortable questions. Now we can ask if human beings could accept a creature into society which uses language in this way. We are aware that this language of gestures must be something other than an embodiment of syntax based on the processing of rules.
On the other hand, Bina uses complex grammar, but conversation with her feels arti- icial. The intentionality detector is in constant use; when I walk through the forest and I hear rustling, I perceive it as a threat. Directing attention is a starting point for agreeing on common goals and cooperating. Bina should kick-start these systems in us. If she succeeded, we could treat her as a human being. Still, I think none of us considers Bina a real person or an intelligent being.
What are we trying to do here? Or perhaps, as suggested by John von Neumann, the father of IT — a better means to artificial intelligence would be simple robots that can build more complex robots, which in turn create their own needs, have their own problems and try to solve them. Maybe they need evolution, not construction by engineers.
Certain researchers today try to associate human uniqueness with the skill of imitation — precise mimicry. Imitation, despite common opinion, is complicated. Our imitation preferences are being researched in experiments with robots. We imitate, as it turns out, emotional facial expressions in the main. Mimicked interactions, imitating emotional facial expressions, are the key to understanding others. Personally, I believe that social neuroscience is currently the most interesting ield of science.
Inside the mri scanner, the subject has to lie down without moving, and to react to impulses on the screen by pressing buttons. In the case of nirs, we can conduct face-to-face research. Transhumanism works in two contexts. The first of these is purely descriptive — we describe what happens when people encounter new technologies and try to predict what may happen in the future.
In this sense, I believe we entered the transhumanist era 50 years ago, and today we can observe its consequences. Biology has many cases of new species appearing due to changes in the environment over a short period of time.
Still, I find it hard to believe that something similar could happen to humans. Technology is not likely to lead to speciation. But the diference now is that the bibliography takes seven pages, whereas earlier it it on one or two. I believe it shows that we should try approach knowledge management diferently. Certain people think contrary to transhumanists. According to them, the world nowadays bombs us with more stimuli than our mind is able to process.
I would approach such conclusions with care — in my opinion, technology is not a danger but an opportunity. What can one think about such an interesting, but — to be honest — extravagant technological concept as Bina48?
The technology which this prototype is based on is not an example of general intelligence a technological device modelling intellectual processes or human behaviours by giving them a general character. Neither is it the type of machine built at the beginnings of artificial intelligence — devices imitating general thought processes, like proving mathematical theorems or playing chess.
I sincerely doubt in such possibilities. The device is simultaneously reined, but also quite simplistic, which Let me ask a more general question, makes it a diicult one to interpret, but and I hope the creators of Bina also to use.
Let me ask a more general question, and I hope the creators of Bina will forgive my arrogance: What kind of beneits can we derive from using it?
Can we really treat it as a symbol of someone close? We have photos, albums, diaries, which will — as has happened since the earliest days of culture — represent and symbolise someone else, their thoughts and feelings, also providing us with the satisfaction of staying in contact.
They symbolise the people we had real relationships with better than a human-like simulacrum. Today, the coloni- sation is being carried out on us all by giant computer and information companies. This process also results in a digital divide. Exclusion from the use of devices and tools is a result of difficulties in using them and of their inaccessibility.
This exclusion, in the case of elderly and less-educated persons, was already noted a decade ago. Today, this fact has lost its signiicance, because the internet is commonly acces- sible — it reaches nearly 4 billion people The dangers of mass technology and is expected to keep spreading.
The dangers of mass technology and remote communication retain their exclusive nature. Every technology has a dual nature and consequences — positive and negative. This situation has many causes — from economic, through political to cultural ones. Such processes diversiied people and social classes during the irst and second industrial revolutions, at the same time failing to solve urgent social issues like inequality or poverty. It stems from popularising communi- cation technology, which gives the opportunity for unlimited experience sharing with any number of people.
I could compare this process again to the 16th and 17th century colonisation of the New World. It was a subordination of other cultures, their beliefs, legends and myths, to the unified Christian culture of white people. The homogenous world of Western culture caused hundreds of ethnic languages and the speciic beliefs of those civili- sations to disappear. The New World became uniied, but poor at the same time.
Through this analogy, I want to say that technology brings similar results. Today we have, in theory, equal access to monopolised and uniied means of communication. We use smartphones, tablets, computers and other devices or applications in a similar way. But we should ask: Do we get to know the world and other people better? I doubt it. In global communication, only uniied and depleted content can be distributed.
When it comes to means of communication, I will speak to a device like Bina — not with a real person — only through patterns which have been previously encoded. The questions will be enforced, and the responses supericial. The standardised world, with uniied behaviour and thought patterns, quickly accessible, within easy reach, is a world dominated by similar questions and answers, the same news sources, the same search tools.
It kills the originality of human thought and hinders creativity. We may get along better with simple issues, but we will lose the core of culture and civilisation — the richness of values, the variety of patterns, the luc- tuation and dynamics of events. In my opinion, these changes will afect education in the worst way.
If we follow identical patterns of thinking and acting, we will kill the originality and creativity which everyone is born with, but which can disappear under the weight of overly stan- dardised rules and formulas. At the university, I see students overly shaped by communication technologies, losing the ability to think on their own.
Few people notice the negative conse- quences of civilisational change, because most are swayed by the spectacular successes of the newest technologies.
Optimism, driven by inluential centres related to technological headquarters, prevails. Each of us experiences the advan- tages and diiculties born of common access to technology. Handling increasingly complex tools disperses our natural cognitive skills — focus and creative thought. We slowly unlearn simple operations of indi- vidual thinking, counting and predicting, because computers do them instead of us.
We lose our natural skills of remembering, analysing and thinking creatively. I cannot say that it will end in catastrophe, but it will certainly lead to more negative results in education or daily life. Teachers and conscientious parents are aware of this already.
Among the various — not exaggerated — dangers posed by new tech- nologies, they bring advantages too. One has to carefully recognise and interpret them, avoiding fascination and excessive euphoria. Numerous experiences prove it: So, as Professor Duch pointed out, modelling, diag- nostics, recognising illnesses and making up for the deicits of ageing brains is a brilliant perspective which IT has to ofer humankind.
The peculiar, even harmful techno- logical optimism of transhumanist concepts is an example.
According to this, in the near future the progress of humanity will reach a breaking point called the technological singularity, in which development will accelerate due to technology. Human evolution would be driven by technology, not biology. The prognostics of this movement claim that the human species will reach a new evolutionary level in , but I doubt this. After all, the progress of evolution is measured in hundreds of thousands of years.
In order for a species feature to reappear in further generations, , years are necessary. So 35 years which are supposed to divide us from the prophetic singularity is deinitely too short a time for a new transhuman quality to develop. Bina is a perfect reference for reflection on consciousness. She embodies the diiculties denoted by philosophy of the mind. An entirely new quality is coming.
The availability of communication media causes everybody to stay in touch only with people they share common ground with. The reason for this is that we have access to the information which matches the knowledge we already have in our heads. I think that this explains the simple mechanism behind conspiracy theories.
We have certain associations, and we look for others which will match. The world is becoming divided into smaller enclaves. In the past, we had to talk to people who had diferent opinions, so our own views were challenged. In Poland, the situation is similar — people are unable to hold a conversation, the shared basis for communication is missing. Regarding the exclusion, we have to remember that only a few years ago, mobile phones were considered a technology which excluded developing countries.
An exclusivity issue is, for example, the cost of extreme medicine. American medical care is the most developed in the world, but the infant mortality rate remains the same as in Africa. Many people are excluded because various things are possible, but they cost too much. Language issues are certainly the key. That is why I mentioned the problem of generating natural language. But only naive people can be tricked. One sensible question and the bot fails the entire Turing test, because intelligence is impossible without emotion.
We know it from research into frontal lobes. People sufering from emotional latness have problems with decision making. Emotions allow us to make quick decisions and to be happy with them. We will inluence the brain directly using various methods, and impact the structure of the brain.
Neurosurgeons have already been testing methods for treating obsessive-compulsive disorders, in which the patient can regulate his or her own behaviour using a smartphone. During this session we will add a new vector — politics. How could politics change under the inluence of technology? How might relations of power look in the world of omnipresent artiicial intelligence? One of the classic deinitions says that power is the ability to inluence other people, so we can accomplish our goals through the actions of others.
In systemic dimensions, power is deined as a symbolically generalised medium of communication. A medium — a solution, an apparatus which facilitates a communicative situation, increasing the probability of a relation between two people. Love is a similar medium. Hence, both love and power are symbolically generalised media of communication, which in turn function in a general ecosystem of media used by society — technological media included.
When the balance is distorted due to innovation in communication technology, we may assume that the entire system has become imbal- anced and requires reconstruction. We remember the far-reaching consequences of the invention of print, although we have to remember that they were stretched in time.
The irst novel was only published in if we agree that it was indeed Don Quixote , almost years after inventing print. The emergence of cultural forms adequate to the new medium required a lot of time, and so did new political forms adequate for the new methods of creating and spreading knowledge.
Many years passed until democracy emerged — initially, the democracy of the bourgeoisie, later including workers, and so forth.
I aim at a critical polemic, of a set of opinions which we could label as cyber- fetishism or technoenthusiasm. Very According to the technological ix often, these attitudes are related to approach, as-yet-unknown discov- viewpoints strongly criticised in the eries and future technological inno- contemporary philosophy of tech- vations will resolve future economic, nology.
Here I mean technological social and environmental ailments instrumentalism and the technological fix. According to the technological fix approach, as-yet-unknown discoveries and future technological innova- tions will resolve future economic, social and environmental ailments. The technological ix is a symptom of Enlightenment-era optimism and trust towards technoscience.
It means that facing the unwanted efects of scientiic and technological progress such as the issue of safe storage of nuclear waste for the next , years , we place our hope in… further progress. Importantly, technological instrumentalism removes laboratories from under the umbrella of cautiousness and political care, claiming that monitoring and regulating them is irrelevant.
In my opinion, both of these approaches, especially in the 21st century, should be considered highly problematic, and their rhetorical impact within debates on new discoveries and technologies should be carefully followed. It allows for pulling attention away from the environmental costs of processes which amaze us when we witness 23 See: Lewis, the dynamic progress of the media and entertainment industries. Beyond Consumer Capitalism: Media In material terms, the knowledge society is a reality in which the and the Limits to media industry and air transport generate a comparable amount of Imagination, Polity Press, , p.
Building a computer requires as much energy, water and chemicals as building a car. As explained by tions: Universal, Sony and Warner, J. Lewis, researchers such as Justin Lewis, Communication Sciences professor at op. What kinds of mechanisms are these? Above all, e-waste is a shameful side of computerisation, which must public subsidies, see: Miller, The vernacu- dampen the moods of technoenthusiasts.
Economic Repre- sentations: Academic tablets and printers. Ruccio, Routledge, , pp. Favouring the neurotic chase after novelty, the media industry is based on the logic of planned obsolescence Planned obsolescence means delib- by Brooks Stevens, American industrial erately designing products so that they become outdated, defective, designer. The 26 See: Perelman, twisted strategies of planned failure and pre-designed incompatibility Manufacturing Discontent: The Trap are leading humanity towards environmental catastrophe The time of Individualism in Corporate Society, an average product lasts in the communication and media business Pluto Press, , pp.
The demands of the innovation-oriented This capacity is deined ordered mobile phone producers to unify by the dramatically shrinking resources of the Earth.
Zybertowicz and his team, op. The IT and media industry is simultaneously a sector which employs the most creative workforce in the world, depriving other branches of the economy of their human resources and talents. The most talented university graduates in developed and developing countries create applications for Android, work in advertising or perfect film tech- nologies.
By promoting the new technology industry, we are contributing to this situation. The most serious diagnosticians of the condition of global society mention destabilisation of the climate, the dramatic rise in social inequality, the concentration of resources and the condition of democracy. In medical sciences, marasmus is a condition of the body which poses a severe danger to the ability to think and act, leading to apathy.
The post-capitalist formation remains strongly embedded in the climate and environmental impasse, failing to learn about its own surroundings. The methodological inade- quacy of the available models of neoclassical economy in relation to the 28 See: Biografie i wspomnienia. Kolejne dni. Hold you close. Zapomniany wiek XX. Dla ojczyzny ratowania: Operacja Market Garden. Hue Wietnam we krwi. Kobiety z bloku Eksperymenty medyczne w Auschwitz.
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