Full searchable text of the Pentagon Papers, which were declassified and released online 40 years after the leak by Daniel Ellsberg. "The French Government is firmly resolved to carry out in full its declaration of July 3, , by which is announced its intention of perfecting the independence of. ers for the Department of Defense, known now as the Pentagon Papers, became of this, and the full reasons for the March stabilization of large.
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The Pentagon Papers, officially titled "Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon Presidential Libraries, has released the complete report. All files in the "Title" column are in PDF format. Forty years after the New York Times published a leaked version of the secret government study of the Vietnam War known as the Pentagon Papers, the. "After 40 Years, the Complete Pentagon Papers" . the various versions we are displaying—not only the pdf panels but also the page numbers.
That release resulted in the stunning contradiction that the Diplomatic Volumes of the Pentagon Papers—deemed too sensitive even to leak in —were fully available to the public while the major portion of the review—which has been available to the public ever since —remained secret. December - June Thus, as the nine-year rule of Diem came to a bloody end, our complicity in his overthrow heightened our responsibilities and our commitment in an essentially leaderless Vietnam. On the other hand this version used the pagination of the original Department of Defense compilation, which was confusing and changed almost as often as the studies themselves. The Kennedy Commitments and Programs, The February decision to bomb North Vietnam and the July approval of Phase I deployments make sense only if they are in support of a long-run United States policy to contain China. Ground Strategy and Force Deployments:
In a phone call at around noon on June 13, Nixon spoke with Alexander Haig, assistant to the national security adviser.
Nixon asked about casualty numbers from Vietnam, and then inquired, "Nothing else of interest in the world today? I see," Nixon said. Nixon was clearly surprised. His relaxed tone in that conversation hardened over that day and in the days to come. The administration tried to block the Times and other papers from publishing, but the newspapers ultimately won in the Supreme Court. Nixon created a special White House unit, known as the Plumbers, to investigate the leak, and Naftali says their break-in at the office of Ellsberg's psychiatrist was the beginning of the end for Nixon.
As for what's new in the papers released Monday, historians will probably be digging for a while. The papers are physically available at three presidential libraries and the National Archives, and are also posted on the web for anyone to download. Accessibility links Skip to main content Keyboard shortcuts for audio player.
Don't Tell Me! NPR Shop. Now all 7, pages are available in their entirety. Facebook Twitter Flipboard Email. June 13, Heard on All Things Considered.
Enlarge this image. Web Resources Enlarge this image. Ellsberg's 'Dangerous' Decision: To Tell The Truth Feb. Archive analyst Carlos Osorio coordinated the data processing for publication.
Archive staff Wendy Valdes and Charlotte Karrlsson-Willis did the input, indexing and cross-referencing, and the Archive's webmaster Michael Evans managed the online publication of the Pentagon Papers.
The National Security Archive here posts, for the first time anywhere, a combined, comparative, and searchable set of all the major editions of the Pentagon Papers together with a cross-referencing index to all the sets.
The Nixon administration attempted to suppress the leak of the Papers by seeking a prior injunction against their publication from the U. It succeeded thereby in making the Pentagon Papers into one of the significant political documents of the 20th Century. The case went to the Supreme Court, which decided against the government in a notable First Amendment decision affirming freedom of the press. With this background the reader can begin to understand the secrecy issues that swirled around this set of materials.
The first point is that the Ellsberg leak involved the disclosure of official documents. Johnson and previous presidents back to Franklin D. Second, these were official documents classified at a high level. Those who worked on the Pentagon Papers have affirmed that the materials were classified this way in order to prevent the Johnson White House from discovering that this review was underway, but Nixon officials argued the documents were secret only because they included information whose disclosure damaged the national security of the United States.
The administration argued this both in the Pentagon Papers court case and in the subsequent criminal prosecution of Daniel Ellsberg and his confederate, Anthony J. For forty years from until the U. Government has continued to take the position that the Pentagon Papers remained secret even though anyone could read them. Repeated efforts to secure the declassification of the Pentagon Papers were denied or ignored.
In the meantime the clamor for access to the Pentagon Papers resulted in the appearance of several editions of the documents. The most widely available and best-known of these versions is The Pentagon Papers as Published by the New York Times, which compiled in one place the series of articles and set of documents that newspaper had published. Note 1 This edition attracted huge public attention and went through many printings but was flawed in that it represented a very narrow selection among the plethora of materials contained in the original.
The Times reporters had distilled the 43 studies of the original to which they had access into a single volume. Note 2 Meanwhile the Nixon administration itself had promised to release a set of the Pentagon Papers and it did so through the Armed Services Committee of the House of Representatives.
Government Printing Office. As a result of the way the Pentagon Papers surfaced there have always been difficulties in using them. The Times version, widely available, only scratched the surface. Both the Gravel and HASC editions appeared in only a few, or one printing, and were therefore not very accessible to the public. Restricted availability—in many cases limited to good college libraries—kept the full set of materials away from most of the public.
The Gravel edition had the virtues of having a straightforward presentation and including Johnson administration documents.
On the other hand this version used the pagination of the original Department of Defense compilation, which was confusing and changed almost as often as the studies themselves. None of the editions included four volumes of diplomatic accounts of Johnson administration peace feelers to North Vietnam, which Ellsberg had withheld when leaking the rest of the Pentagon Papers. An expurgated set of those studies only became available in Note 4 The complete Diplomatic Volumes were finally declassified in That release resulted in the stunning contradiction that the Diplomatic Volumes of the Pentagon Papers—deemed too sensitive even to leak in —were fully available to the public while the major portion of the review—which has been available to the public ever since —remained secret.
In any case, until now the United States Government has insisted that the Pentagon Papers are secret while those who sought to learn from them have been able to read whatever version they could access, each with its own flaws.
The NARA action in releasing the full set of studies, a token of its commitment to major declassification initiatives, permits comprehensive examination of the Pentagon Papers for the first time. However, readers remain hampered by the confusing organization and structure of the original Department of Defense review.
Using the Gravel edition to find material, and then looking it up in the original actually remains a suitable way to proceed. This has been problematical not only because of the confusing pagination in the original but due to the differences in availability of the various editions.
Even the new NARA release, although it is online, limits the user to one item at a time because it is organized by file corresponding to study volume. We have done this by arranging a full-matrix display.
This presentation shows each page of the fully declassified NARA version of the Pentagon Papers side-by-side with the corresponding page of the HASC edition and corresponding material from the Gravel set. From this display it is possible to instantly identify the passages deleted by the Nixon administration in , as well as how editors changed material in the original when compiling the Gravel edition.
We have excluded the Times version because that consists of the summarizations of authors and only a limited portion of text.
The Archive has also undertaken to make available an Index that permits cross-referencing among the various versions we are displaying—not only the pdf panels but also the page numbers in the printed editions of these works. An introduction to the Index makes clear how it is organized and can be used.
This posting of nearly 20, pages has been an enormous undertaking and required the cooperation of many Archive personnel. Information technology and Latin America specialist Carlos Osorio conceptualized and coordinated the data processing for the multi version publication.
Analyst Wendy Valdes organized and verified the inputs. Webmaster Michael Evans also a Latin Americanist accomplished the final work of getting the page matrix display up on our website. In reviewing these documents for declassification, one authority sought to suppress eleven words on one page.
That is, in effect an agency sought to make secret a passage of the Pentagon Papers that had already been reviewed and declassified by the United States Government in Calmer heads finally prevailed and the government relented and released the documents with no deletions. The National Security Archive posted its own set of eleven candidates. Here we would like to extend an invitation to interested readers to send us your own guesses.
There will be prizes for the best candidate passage and for runners-up. Readers can examine the side-by-side page display of all the Pentagon Papers content posted here to find items to nominate.
All entries must be received by Entries will be judged by National Security Archive panelists. The Grand Prize winner and Runners-Up will be announced by posting in the blog Unredacted on the National Security Archive website during the week that starts on December 17th. The National Security Archive will award the best Pentagon Papers candidate for deletion a Grand Prize consisting of a set of the available Archive Readers—books on major international issues which include compilations of documents obtained by the Archive along with analysis by Archive experts.
Enter early and often! However, entries must follow the format prescribed below. Only one candidate passage may be nominated in any single entry.
Multiple entries must be submitted separately. All entries must be in writing, in an email to the Archive at nsarchiv gwu. Please do not use Twitter, as a proper entry cannot be fitted within the Twitter message format.