LAN Switching and Wireless, CCNA Exploration Labs and Study Guide is a supplement to your classroom and laboratory experience with the Cisco Networking. ii CCNA Exploration Course Booklet: LAN Switching and Wireless, Version designed. These simple guidelines will help you differentiate between well- designed and poorly designed Detailed instructions are provided within the activity as well as in the PDF link below. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide. LAN Switching and Wireless, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide CCNA Routing and Switching Complete Study Guide Exam , Exam , Exam CCNA Routing and Switching Practice Questions For Dummies. pdf.
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LAN Switching and Wireless, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online for free. CCNA 3. LAN Switching and Wireless CCNA Exploration Companion Guide .. Also included in this section is “A Guide to Using a Networker's Journal” PDF booklet. ii LAN Switching and Wireless, CCNA Exploration Companion Guide Using a Networker's Journal” PDF booklet providing important insight into the value.
When a Cisco IP phone is plugged into an access layer switch port configured to support voice traffic. Longer cable and slower nominal velocity of propagation NVP result in more propagation delay. If the two-octet value is equal to or greater than 0x hexadecimal or decimal. It uses a cyclic redundancy check CRC to calculate an error check. You should be able to telnet to either FastEthernet interface of the router.
Cable and Initialize the Network 83 Task 2: Recover Passwords on the Catalyst Task 8: Cable and Initialize the Network 98 Task 2: Establish a Console Connection to a Switch Task 2: Configure the Clock Using Help Task 4: Modify the History Buffer Task 5: Configure the Login Banner Task 7: Configure the Router Task 8: Configure the Boot Sequence Task 9: Configure Port Security Task Secure Unused Ports Task Prepare the Network Task 2: Perform Basic Switch Configurations Task 3: Configure and Activate Ethernet Interfaces Task 4: Document the Switch Configurations Task 6: Clean Up Packet Tracer Companion: Document the Switch Configurations Task 4: Add and Connect the Switches Task 2: Add and Connect the PCs Task 3: Configure Devices and Verify Connectivity Task 4: Configure and Verify Port Security Task 5: Matching Vocabulary Exercise: Basic VTP Configuration 4.
VTP Configuration Challenge 4. Configure Host PCs Task 4: Challenge VTP Configuration 4. Troubleshooting VTP Configuration 4.
Configure and Verify Port Security Task 3: Configure VTP Task 4: Configure Trunking Task 5: Basic Spanning Tree Protocol 5.
Perform Basic Switch Configurations Task 2: Prepare the Network Task 3: Observe the Response to the Topology Change in Document the Switch Configurations Task 7: Clean Up Lab Challenge Spanning Tree Protocol 5.
Optimize STP Task 7: Document the Switch Configurations Task Troubleshooting Spanning Tree Protocol 5. Configure STP Task 8: Document the Switch Configurations Task 8: Configure the Router Task 6: Configure VTP Task 3: Configure Trunking Task 4: Basic Wireless Configuration 7.
Connect and Log into the Wireless Router Task 3: Test Connectivity Task 9: Connect to WRS3 Task 7: Configure Basic Wireless Settings Task Enable Wireless Security Task Set Access Restrictions Optional Task Create and Verify Full Connectivity Task Configure Routing Efficiency Optional Task Troubleshooting Wireless Configuration 7.
Configure Wireless Network Access Task 4: Document the Configurations Task 5: Configure STP Task 7: Configure Wireless Connectivity Task 9: The Command Reference describes these conventions as follows: In actual configuration examples and output not general command syntax , boldface indicates commands that are manually input by the user such as a show command.
A Networking Academy delivers web-based content, online assessment, student performance tracking, and hands-on labs to prepare students for industry-standard certifications.
In order to be successful on the exam and achieve your CCNA certification, you should do everything in your power to arm yourself with a variety of tools and training materials to support your learning efforts. This Labs and Study Guide is just such a collection of tools. Specifically, this book will help you work on these main areas: Many Academies use this book as a required tool in the course, while other Academies recommend the Labs and Study Guides as an additional source of study and practice materials.
The secondary audiences for this book include people taking CCNA-related classes from professional training organizations. This book can also be used for college- and university-level networking courses, as well as anyone wanting to gain a detailed understanding of basic switching and wireless technologies. Passing this foundation exam means that you not only have the required knowledge of the technologies covered by the exam, but that you can plan, design, implement, operate, and troubleshoot these technologies.
In other words, these exams are rigorously application based. You can view the exam topics any time at http: The topics are divided into eight categories: The Study Guide portion of each chapter offers exercises that help you learn the LAN switching and wireless concepts as well as the configurations crucial to your success as a CCNA exam candidate.
Each chapter is slightly different and includes some or all of the following types of exercises: Packet Tracer allows you to create networks, visualize how packets flow in the network, and use basic testing tools to determine whether the network would work.
When you see this icon, you can use Packet Tracer with the listed file to perform a task suggested in this book. Ask your instructor for access to Packet Tracer.
The Curriculum Labs are divided into three categories: The Basic Labs are procedural in nature and assume you have no experience configuring the technologies that are the topic of the lab. In other words, you must use the knowledge and skills you gained in the chapter text, activities, and Basic Lab to successfully complete the Challenge Labs.
Do not try to short-circuit your CCNA training. The Troubleshooting Labs will ask you to fix a broken network. These labs include corrupted scripts you purposefully load onto the routers.
Then you use troubleshooting techniques to isolate problems and implement a solution. By the end of the lab, you should have a functional network with full end-to-end connectivity. These activities require you to pull together several skills learned from the chapter— and from previous chapters and courses—to successfully complete one comprehensive exercise. Lab activities are an important part of networking education. However, lab equipment can be a scarce resource. Packet Tracer provides a visual simulation of equipment and network processes to offset the challenge of limited equipment.
Students can spend as much time as they like completing standard lab exercises through Packet Tracer, and have the option to work from home. Although Packet Tracer is not a substitute for real equipment, it allows students to practice using a command-line interface. Packet Tracer v4. This book has seven chapters, with the same numbers and names as the online course chapters.
If necessary, a chapter uses a single topology for the exercises in the Study Guide portion. The single topology per chapter allows for better continuity and easier understanding of switching commands, operations, and outputs. However, the topology is different from the one used in the online curriculum and the Companion Guide. A different topology affords you the opportunity to practice your knowledge and skills without just simply recording the information you find in the text.
The exercises in the Study Guide portion focus on LAN design concepts, including vocabulary and the three-layer hierarchical model. The exercises in the Study Guide portion help you understand basic Ethernet and switching concepts, including building the MAC address table and collision and broadcast domains. The exercises in the Study Guide portion focus on the concept of redundant LAN topologies, using STP and its variants to stop loops, and the commands to manipulate root bridge elections.
The exercises in the Study Guide portion begin with wireless LAN concepts, including standards, operation, and security. Packet Tracer Companion Updates to these files can be obtained from the website for this book at http: The files will be updated to cover any subsequent releases of Packet Tracer. Becoming a member and registering is free, and you then gain access to exclusive deals on other resources from Cisco Press.
To register this book, go to www. Then enter the ISBN located on the back cover of this book. After you register the book, it will appear on your Account page under Registered Products and you can access any online material from there. You must understand what a welldesigned LAN is and be able to select appropriate devices to support the network specifications of a small or medium-sized business.
The Study Guide portion of this chapter uses a combination of matching, fill-in-the-blank, and open-ended question exercises to test your knowledge of LAN design. The Labs and Activities portion of this chapter includes all the online curriculum labs and Packet Tracer activities to help you review information and skills you learned in the first course, Exploration Network Fundamentals.
Each layer provides specific functions that define its role within the overall network. By separating the various functions that exist on a network, not only is the network more manageable, but the network design becomes modular, which facilitates scalability and performance. Vocabulary Exercise: Matching Match the definition on the left with a term on the right. All definitions and terms are used exactly one time. Definitions a.
Classifying and prioritizing traffic based on type Terms c access layer f business goals d collapsed core m convergence e core layer l distribution layer h EtherChannel j manageability i performance f.
Determine the design requirements for a network. Allow you to segment the traffic on a switch into separate subnetworks. Controls which end devices are allowed to com- municate on the network. Distribution layer and core layer are combined into one layer.
High-speed backbone of the internetwork capable of forwarding large amounts of data quickly. Cisco proprietary link aggregation technology. Properly designed hierarchical networks can achieve near wire speed between all devices. Consistency between the switches at each layer allows for rapid recovery and simplified troubleshooting. Dramatically increases availability. Controls the flow of network traffic using policies and delineates broadcast domains by performing routing functions between virtual LANs VLANs.
The process of combining voice and video com- munications on a data network. The modularity of the hierarchical design facili- tates ease of network expansion. Completion Complete the paragraphs that follow by filling in the appropriate words and phrases. The Hierarchical Network Model The typical hierarchical design model is broken up into three layers: Draw an example of a three-layer hierarchical network design in the blank space provided in Figure The student does not have to draw this exact topology.
However, all three layers should be adequately represented. The main purpose of the access layer is to provide a means of connecting devices to the network and controlling which devices are allowed to communicate on the network. The distribution layer aggregates the data received from the access layer switches before it is transmitted to the core layer for routing to its final destination.
The distribution layer controls the flow of network traffic using policies and delineates broadcast domains by performing routing functions between VLANs defined at the access layer. The core layer is critical for interconnectivity between distribution layer devices.
It can also connect to Internet resources. There are many benefits associated with hierarchical network designs: The modularity of the design allows you to replicate design elements as the network grows. Because each instance of the module is consistent, expansion is easy to plan and implement.
Access layer switches are connected to two different distribution layer switches. Distribution layer switches are connected to two or more core layer switches to ensure path availability if a core switch fails. Data is sent through aggregated switch port links from the access layer to the distribution layer at near wire speed in most cases. You have the flexibility to use more advanced policies at the distribution layer. You may apply access control policies that define which communication protocols are deployed on your network and where they are permitted to go.
Each layer of the hierarchical design performs specific functions that are consistent throughout that layer. Because hierarchical networks are modular in nature and scale very easily, they are easy to maintain. Principles of Hierarchical Network Design When designing a hierarchical network topology, consider the network diameter, which is the number of devices that a packet has to cross before it reaches its destination.
Keeping the network diameter low ensures low and predictable latency between devices. Each layer in the hierarchical network model is a possible candidate for bandwidth aggregation, which allows multiple switch port links to be combined so as to achieve higher throughput between switches. Redundancy can be provided in a number of ways, including by doubling up the network connections between devices or doubling the devices themselves.
Design requirements, such as the level of performance or redundancy necessary, are determined by the business goals of the organization. What Is a Converged Network?
Convergence is the process of combining voice and video communications on a data network. Converged networks have existed for a while now, but were only feasible in large enterprise organizations because of the high network costs. Converged networks also required extensive management in relation to Quality of Service QoS , because voice and video data traffic needed to be classified and prioritized on the network.
Few individuals had the expertise in voice, video, and data networks to make convergence feasible and functional. In addition, legacy equipment hinders the process of moving toward a converged network.
What are two benefits to implementing a converged network as opposed to implementing three separate networks? One network to manage Lower costs Converged networks give you options that had not existed previously.
There is no need for an expensive handset phone or videoconferencing equipment. You can accomplish the same function using special software integrated with a personal computer. With the addition of inexpensive webcams, videoconferencing can be added to a softphone. Three-Layer Hierarchical Model Exercise For each of the following figures, indicate whether the scenario is an access layer function, distribution layer function, or core layer function.
Figure Scenario 2 Switches In Figure , the access layer is using series switches to connect end users to the network. Figure Scenario 4 Multilayer Switches In Figure , the core layer is using multilayer switches between remote sites across a WAN link for fast switching and no packet manipulation.
Matching Switches to Specific LAN Functions Selecting switches for each of the layers of the hierarchical design requires knowing details about traffic flows, the user community demands, data storage needs, and server availability. Definitions j. Typically traverses multiple switches to reach its destination.
A graphical representation of a network k. Defines the capabilities of a switch by infrastructure. Cannot add hardware features or options beyond those that originally came with the switch.
Also known as Layer 3 switches. A process of identifying various groups c. Allow installation of different line cards. A process of measuring the bandwidth usage on a network and analyzing the data for the purpose of performance tuning, capacity planning, and making hardware improvement decisions.
Reduces bottlenecks of traffic by allowing up to eight switch ports to be bound together for data communications. The number of ports available on a single switch. Uses the network cable to deliver electric- ity to devices. Generated between data storage devices on the network. Interconnected using a special backplane cable. Some features may belong to more than one layer. In Table , record the command, including the correct prompt, that fits the description.
Fill in any blanks with the appropriate missing information. This requires creating and assigning two subnetwork blocks, connecting hosts and network devices, and configuring host computers and one Cisco router for basic network connectivity. Switch1 has a default configuration and does not require additional configuration. You will use common commands to test and document the network. The zero subnet is used. Figure shows the topology diagram for this lab. Design an IP addressing scheme.
Given the IP address block of LAN Design Step 2. Task 2: Configure the Physical Topology Step 1. Cable the network. Refer to Figure and Table to determine the necessary cables needed to connect the devices.
Physically connect lab devices.
Cable the network devices as shown in Figure and power all devices. Step 3. Inspect the network connections. Verify the connections visually. Link lights on the router, switch, and hosts should be green.
You will not have a link light for the console connection, but it should be firmly attached at both ends. Instructor Note: If necessary, delete the vlan. Ensure that the router configuration has been erased. Configure the Logical Topology Step 1. Configure the host computers. Configure the static IP address, subnet mask, and gateway for each host computer. The following directions are for Windows XP. To configure hosts using other operating systems, refer to the operating system manual.
When prompted to type the name of a program, enter cmd in the text box. From the command window, display and verify the host network settings with the ipconfig command. The settings should match what you recorded previously in Table Step 2.
Configure Router1. From Host1, establish a console session with Router1. Directions for creating a console connection using Tera Term or HyperTerminal are in the appendixes at the end of this lab.
From the router console, enter the following commands: Verify Network Connectivity Use the ping command to verify network connectivity. If pings to the host computers fail, temporarily disable the computer firewall and retest. Use Table to verify connectivity with each network device. Take corrective action to establish connectivity if a test fails. Verify Passwords Step 1. Telnet to Router1 from Host2 to verify the Telnet password.
You should be able to telnet to either FastEthernet interface of the router. In a command window on Host 2, type C: Was the telnet successful? Yes Step 2. Verify that the enable secret password has been set.
Yes Step 3. Verify that the console is password protected. Terminate and then re-establish the console connection from Host1 to the router to verify that the console is password protected. Depending on the Telnet client that you are using, the session can usually be terminated with Ctrl-]. When the session is re-established, you should be prompted for the console password before being allowed access to the command-line interface. Task 6: Reflection How are Telnet access and console access different?
When might it make sense to set different passwords on these two access ports? The network administrator must have physical access to the device to establish a console connection, whereas Telnet access can be established from a remote location. Why does the switch between Host2 and the router not require configuration with an IP address to forward packets? The switch is a Layer 2 device and does not forward traffic using Layer 3 addressing.
In addition, in this lab you do not need to manage the switch remotely. Therefore, you did not set an IP address for Telnet access. Task 7: Clean Up Unless directed otherwise by your instructor, erase the configurations and reload the switches. Disconnect and store the cabling.
Final Router 1 Configuration Router1 show run! LAN Design 15! Remember, however, that Packet Tracer is not a substitute for a hands-on lab experience with real equipment. Appendix 1A: It can be used in the lab environment in place of Windows HyperTerminal. Tera Term can be obtained at the following URL: This version is compatible with XP and Vista.
Step 1. Open Tera Term. Assign the serial port. To use Tera Term to connect to the router console, click the Serial radio button, as shown in Figure Set the serial port parameter. Choose the appropriate parameter from the Port drop-down list.
Normally, your connection is through COM1. If you are unsure what port to use, ask your instructor for assistance. When you are finished, click OK. Figure Step 4. Tera Term: New Connection Dialog Box Configure settings. Tera Term has some settings that can be changed to make it more convenient to use. This setting allows command output to remain visible when the Tera Term window is resized. Click OK to close the Terminal Setup dialog box.
Figure Step 5. Terminal Setup Dialog Box Change the scroll buffer number. This setting allows you to scroll up and view previous commands and outputs. If there are only lines available in the buffer, only the last lines of output are visible. For example, set the scroll buffer to lines. Windows can also be set to use the DOS version of Telnet. Complete the following steps to change your default Telnet client to Tera Term or any other Telnet client: Open the Folder Options dialog box.
Telnet Protocol. Telnet Protocol entry, as shown in Figure , and then click the Advanced button. Edit the open action. In the Editing Action for Type: Click Browse to change the application. Browse to the Tera Term installation folder, as shown in Figure Click ttermpro. Step 6. Confirm ttermpro. The Windows default Telnet client is now set to Tera Term.
Create a new connection. Open HyperTerminal to create a new connection to the router. Enter an appropriate description in the Name field of the Connection Description dialog box, shown in Figure , and then click OK.
Assign COM1 port. In the Connect To dialog box, shown in Figure , make sure that the correct serial port is selected in the Connect Using field. Click OK. Set COM1 properties. In the COM1 Properties dialog box, on the Port Settings tab, if the properties are not set to the values shown in Figure , click Restore Defaults, which normally sets the correct properties.
Then click OK. You should now have a console connection to the router. Press Enter to get a router prompt. Record the IP address information for each device: Refer to Figure and in Table indicate the necessary cables needed to connect the devices.
After cabling the network devices, verify the connections. Task 3: After configuring each host computer, display and verify the host network settings with the ipconfig command. From Host1, establish a console connection with Router1 and configure the following: In Table record IP addresses and connectivity verification results for each network device.
Telnet to Router1 from Host2 and verify the Telnet password. You should be able to telnet to either Fast Ethernet interface of the router. The configuration contains design and configuration errors that conflict with stated requirements and prevent end-to-end communication. You will examine the given design and identify and correct any design errors. You will then cable the network, configure the hosts, and load configurations onto the router.
Finally, you will troubleshoot the connectivity problems to determine where the errors are occurring and correct them using the appropriate commands. When all errors have been corrected, each host should be able to communicate with all other configured network elements and with the other host. LAN Design 27 Task 1: Verify the IP addressing scheme. The IP address block of Are any of the given values incorrect? Record the correct IP address information for each device: Cable, Erase, and Reload the Routers Step 1.
Clear the configuration on each router. Configure the Host Computers Step 1.
Configure host computers with IP addressing. Verify host computer configuration. Task 4: Missing or misconfigured commands are enclosed in brackets, [ ]. Identify Connectivity Problems Use the ping command to test network connectivity. Use Table to test the connectivity of each network device and record the initial results of your tests. Troubleshoot Network Connections Step 1. Begin troubleshooting at PC1 the host directly connected to Router1.
From host PC1, is it possible to ping PC2? No From host PC1, is it possible to ping the default gateway? No From host PC1, is it possible to ping itself? Yes Where is the most logical place to begin troubleshooting the PC1 connection problems? In a more realistic situation. To perform a hardware replacement. Layer 2 redundancy is examined in Chapter 5 when we discuss the spanning-tree protocol.
If you choose an inadequate switch to run in the core of the network. Convergence in this context refers to the time it takes for the network to adapt to a change. Layer 3 redundancy typically has faster convergence than Layer 2 redundancy in the event of hardware failure.
A complete discussion on the implications of Layer 3 redundancy is beyond the scope of this book.
The availability of the core layer is also critical. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide The core layer of a hierarchical topology is the high-speed backbone of the network and requires switches that can handle very high forwarding rates. The required forwarding rate is largely dependent on the number of devices participating in the network. You determine the necessary forwarding rate by conducting and examining various traffic flow reports and user community analyses.
This allows corresponding distribution layer switches to deliver traffic as efficiently as possible to the core. Because QoS provides a. It remains an open question about the need for Layer 2 redundancy in this context. Because high-speed WAN access is often prohibitively expensive.
Many true core-layercapable switches have the capability to swap cooling fans without having to turn the switch off. Take care to evaluate your needs for the present and near future.
Core layer switches should have support for aggregated 10 Gigabit Ethernet connections. Because of the high workload carried by core layer switches. Each product line offers different characteristics and features. LAN Design 33 software-based solution to prioritize traffic.
A small business with 12 employees might be integrated into the network of a large multinational enterprise and require all the advanced LAN services available at the corporate head office.
The classification presented reflects how you might see the range of Cisco switches if you were a multinational enterprise. The Catalyst Express offers the following: The Cisco switch product lines are as follows: The following classification of Cisco switches within the hierarchical network model represents a starting point for your deliberations on which switch is best for a given application.
Cisco currently has seven switch product lines. If you think of the needs of a medium-sized business. The Cisco Catalyst Express series switches are scaled for small business environments ranging from 20 to employees. To learn more about the Cisco Express series of switches. Figure Catalyst Catalyst The Catalyst series switches enable entry-layer enterprise. They are managed using a built-in web management interface. The Catalyst Express does not support console access.
The Catalyst Express series switches are available in different fixed configurations: The Catalyst series switches. To learn more about the Catalyst series of switches.
Catalyst The Cisco Catalyst series is a line of enterprise-class switches that include support for PoE. The Catalyst series switches are available in different fixed configurations: These switches. This switch series supports console and auxiliary access to the switch.
Catalyst The Catalyst Catalyst The Cisco Catalyst series of switches. Figure Catalyst The Catalyst series switches are available in different stackable fixed configurations: The Catalyst series supports Cisco StackWise technology. This series offers forwarding rates from 32 Gbps to Gbps Catalyst E switch series. StackWise technology allows you to interconnect up to nine physical Catalyst switches into one logical switch using a highperformance 32 Gbps.
The Catalyst series offers multilayer QoS and sophisticated routing functions. This allows the switches to achieve higher availability. This switch series supports dual. The Catalyst series switches are available in different modular configurations: The modular capability of the Catalyst series allows for very high port densities through the addition of switch port line cards to its modular chassis.
Catalyst The Catalyst series switches. The Cisco Catalyst is not a typical access layer switch. It is a specialty access layer switch designed for data center deployments where many servers may exist in close proximity. The Catalyst is ideal for very large network environments found in enterprises.
Figure Catalyst The Catalyst series switches are available in different modular configurations: Catalyst series switches do not support the StackWise feature of the Catalyst series. The Catalyst series is the highest-performing Cisco switch.
Catalyst The Catalyst series modular switch. The Catalyst is capable of managing traffic at the distribution and core layers. Use file e You will add all the necessary devices and connect them with the correct cabling. Comparing Switches The following tool can help identify the correct switch for an implementation: Build a Hierarchical Topology 1.
An array of Cisco Catalyst switch product lines are available to support any application or business size. The traffic flow. Lab Review of Concepts from Exploration 1—Challenge 1. The configuration contains design and configuration errors that conflict with stated requirements and prevent end-to-end communication. You examine the given design and identify and correct any design errors.
Troubleshooting a Small Network 1. Review of Concepts from Exploration 1 1. You then cable the network. Hierarchical network topologies facilitate network convergence by enhancing the performance necessary for voice and video data to be combined onto the existing data network. You are given only the set of objectives to complete.
This requires creating and assigning two subnetwork blocks. You will use common commands to test and document the network. Implementing this model improves the performance. The bottlenecks can then be addressed to improve the performance of the network and accurately determine appropriate hardware requirements to satisfy the desired performance of the network. We surveyed the different switch features. Implementation of a core-distribution-access design model for all sites in an enterprise C.
LAN Design 41 onto the router. Which three options correctly associate a layer of the hierarchical design model with its function? Choose three. When all errors have been corrected. Distribution—high-speed backbone E. Combining conventional data with voice and video on a common network. Check Your Understanding Complete all the review questions listed here to test your understanding of the topics and concepts in this chapter.
Answers are listed in the appendix. Implementation of standard equipment sets for LAN design B. Access—interface for end devices D. Distribution—traffic control and security policies C.
Access—implementation of security policies 2. Core—interface for end devices B. Core—high-speed backbone F. With respect to network design. Lower quality of service configuration requirements 4. What factor may complicate user community analysis? Intensity of use of a department application server D. Server-to-server traffic may skew user port usage data. Combines voice and data network staffs C. Anticipated department port growth F.
Data backed up to tape G. Different organization applications may share data stores. Simplified data network configuration B. What would be the port capacity of a single port on a port Gigabit Ethernet switch? Simplified network changes F. Simpler maintenance than hierarchical networks E.
Forwarding rates—processing capabilities of a switch by quantifying performance of the switch by how much data it can process per second C. Which four options describe data store and data server analysis actions?
Choose four. Application usage is not always bound by department or physical location. Workstation ports required for a department B. Network attached storage 5. Which three options are potential benefits of a converged network? Application changes may radically affect predicted data growth. Amount of traffic for a SAN E. Port density—capability to use multiple switch ports concurrently for higher throughput data communication B. Wire speed—data rate that each port on the switch is capable of attaining 7.
Amount of server-to-server traffic C. Link aggregation—number of ports available on a single switch D. Combines voice. Which two of the following pairings are accurate? Choose two. LAN Design 43 8. Controls access of end devices to network E. Layer 1 B. Low bandwidth for interswitch communications E.
Rapid forwarding of traffic. What is a feature offered by all stackable switches? PoE PoE D. Routing C. Layer 2 C. Predetermined number of ports B. Redundant components D. Layer 3 support C. VLANs E. Layer 3 D. Fully redundant backplane C. Providing PoE D. Redundant paths B. Support for Gigabit connectivity D. What function is performed by a Cisco Catalyst access layer switch? Link aggregation Port security B. High-level policy enforcement C.
Which three features are associated with the core layer of the hierarchical design model? PoE capability Which two characteristics describe the core layer of the hierarchical network model?
Layer 4 9. Ports cannot be added to the device. Capable of interconnection via a special backplane cable. Match the terms with the correct descriptions. Capability to recover connectivity after a network failure. Ratio of number of ports to number of switches. Allows for the installation of line cards or modules. List and describe the three layers of the hierarchical network model.
Binding together of distinct links for enhanced throughput. Prioritization of network traffic. Ratio of quantity of data to time.
You can find the answers in the appendix. Capability of a device to power another device using Ethernet. How do you configure basic security on a switch that operates within a network designed to support voice.
What are the functions that enable a switch to forward Ethernet frames in a LAN? Every device that is transmitting continues to transmit to ensure that all devices on the network detect the collision. Although the messages are corrupted. You also learn about some key malicious threats to switches and learn to enable a switch with a secure initial configuration. The messages propagate across the media until they encounter each other.
Network Fundamentals. At that point. When a device is in listening mode. When a collision occurs. If a device detects a signal from another device. You explore how Ethernet communications function and how switches play a role in the communication process.
When there is no traffic detected. Networking Fundamentals. If the distance between devices is such that the latency of the signals of one device means that signals are not detected by a second device.
While this transmission is occurring. The media now has two devices transmitting signals at the same time. After the message is sent.
Examples of unicast transmissions include HTTP. A random backoff period ensures that the devices that were involved in the collision do not try to send traffic again at the same time. Ethernet Communications Reference Figure for the Ethernet communications discussion that follows.
After the delay has expired on a device. Communications in a switched LAN occur in three ways: Chapter 2: Basic Switch Concepts and Configuration 47 When a collision is detected. The jamming signal notifies the other devices of a collision so that they invoke a backoff algorithm. In unicast transmission. An example of a broadcast transmission is the address resolution query that the address resolution protocol ARP sends to all computers on a LAN. This backoff algorithm causes all devices to stop transmitting for a random amount of time.
With broadcast communication. Unicast transmission is the predominant form of transmission on LANs and within the Internet. In this case. Broadcast transmission is essential when sending the same message to all devices on the LAN. Figure IEEE Figure shows the structure of the current Ethernet frame standard. Only a frame length or a frame type can be entered here. Multicast transmission clients must be members of a logical multicast group to receive the information.
All frames must be at least 64 bytes long minimum length aides the detection of collisions. The address in the frame is compared to the MAC address in the device. If the purpose of the field is to designate a type. If there is a match. Both the Ethernet header and trailer have several sections or fields of information that are used by the Ethernet protocol. Switches use this address to add to their lookup tables. An example of multicast transmission is the video and voice transmissions associated with a network-based.
If a small packet is encapsulated. If the two-octet value is equal to or greater than 0x hexadecimal or decimal. These first 8 bytes of the frame are used to get the attention of the receiving nodes. To briefly review the Ethernet frame structure. This address is used by Layer 2 to assist a device in determining whether a frame is addressed to it.
The Data and Pad fields 46 to bytes contain the encapsulated data from a higher layer. If the calculations match. It uses a cyclic redundancy check CRC. The receiving device receives the frame and generates a CRC to look for errors.
The vendor-assigned part of the MAC address is 24 bits long and uniquely identifies the Ethernet hardware. It is 24 bits long and identifies the manufacturer of the NIC card.
Half-duplex connections are typically found in older hardware. Nodes that are attached to hubs that share. If the calculations do not match. If someone talks while someone else is already speaking. The locally administered address bit indicates whether the vendor-assigned MAC address can be modified locally.
Half-duplex communications have performance issues due to the constant waiting. An Ethernet MAC address is a two-part bit binary value expressed as 12 hexadecimal digits. Some vendors allow local modification of the MAC address. This is similar to how walkie-talkies or two-way radios function in that only one person can talk at any one time. The address formats might be similar to A-3C It can be a BIA or it can be modified by software indicated by the local bit.
Duplex Settings There are two types of duplex settings used for communications on an Ethernet network: Half-duplex communication relies on unidirectional data flow where sending and receiving data are not performed at the same time. Within the OUI are 2 bits that have meaning only when used in the destination address. Fullduplex connections require a switch that supports full duplex or a direct connection between two nodes that each support full duplex.
In full-duplex communication. Frames sent by the two connected end nodes cannot collide because the end nodes use two separate circuits in the network cable.
To avoid this situation. Each full-duplex connection uses only one port. Having halfduplex on one end and full-duplex on the other causes late collision errors at the half-duplex end. If the switch port is in full-duplex mode and the attached device is in half-duplex mode. If the device is manually configured to operate in half-duplex mode.
Nodes that are directly attached to a dedicated switch port with NICs that support full duplex should be connected to switch ports that are configured to operate in full-duplex mode.
Note Autonegotiation can produce unpredictable results. With autonegotiation enabled. The Cisco Catalyst switches have three settings: The full option sets full-duplex mode. In full-duplex mode. This type of failure happens when an attached device does not support autonegotiation. Nodes can operate in a half-duplex mode if the NIC card cannot be configured for full-duplex operations. Most Ethernet. The half option sets half-duplex mode. CCNA Exploration Companion Guide their connection to a switch port must operate in half-duplex mode because the end computers must be able to detect collisions.
By default. Later in this chapter. Switch Port Settings A port on a switch needs to be configured with duplex settings that match the media type. Because of these limitations. The bidirectional support enhances performance by reducing the wait time between transmissions. Fast Ethernet. Full-duplex Fast Ethernet. Because the destination address is a broadcast. In networks with multiple interconnected switches.
Basic Switch Concepts and Configuration 51 Additionally. The switch fabric is the integrated circuits and the accompanying machine programming that allows the data paths through the switch to be controlled.
For a switch to know which port to use to transmit a unicast frame. When the auto-MDIX feature is enabled. It is enabled by default on Catalyst and switches. The following six steps describe the process used to populate the MAC address table on a switch: A switch determines how to handle incoming data frames by using its MAC address table.
The switch enters the source MAC address and the switch port that received the frame into the address table. When an incoming data frame is received by a switch and the destination MAC address is not in the table. After a MAC address for a specific node on a specific port is recorded in the address table.
The switch receives a broadcast frame from PC1 on Port 1. When the destination node responds. A hub offers no mechanisms to either eliminate or reduce these collisions.
The switch can now forward frames between source and destination devices without flooding. The switch enters the source MAC address of PC2 and the port number of the switch port that received the frame into the address table. As more devices are added to the shared media.
Collisions occur when two hosts transmit frames simultaneously. The sending hosts stop sending further transmissions for a random period. Because of this.
Because Ethernet has no way of controlling which node will be transmitting at any time. This section focuses on broadcast and collision domains and how they affect LAN designs. The destination address of the frame and its associated port are found in the MAC address table.
The net throughput of the port the average data that is effectively transmitted will be considerably reduced as a function of how many other nodes want to use the network. The destination device replies to the broadcast with a unicast frame addressed to PC1. Bandwidth and Throughput A major disadvantage of Ethernet As you now know. All shared media environments. The figure shows unique collision domains in a switched environment.
HostA and HostB want to communicate with each other. In Figure This connection is considered an individual collision domain because traffic is kept separate from all other traffic. When a host is connected to a switch port. When two connected hosts want to communicate with each other.
The switch creates the connection. The circuit is maintained until the session is terminated. To reduce the number of nodes on a given network segment. The microsegment behaves as if the network has only two hosts. First is the time it takes the source NIC to place voltage pulses on the wire and the time it takes the destination NIC to interpret these pulses. Switches reduce collisions and improve bandwidth use on network segments because they provide dedicated bandwidth to each network segment.
Only a Layer 3 entity. Routers and VLANs are used to segment both collision and broadcast domains. The broadcast domain at Layer 2 is referred to as the MAC broadcast domain. When a device sends out a Layer 2 broadcast. The use of VLANs to segment broadcast domains is discussed in the next chapter. These are either Layer 1. By setting the destination to this value.
This leads to reduced network efficiency because a portion of the available bandwidth is utilized in propagating the broadcast traffic. Network Latency Latency is the time that a frame or a packet takes to travel from the source to the destination.
Layer 2. When a switch receives a broadcast frame. This is sometimes called NIC delay. Each attached device recognizes the broadcast frame and processes it. Latency has at least three sources. When two switches are connected. Latency does not depend solely on distance and number of devices. A collection of interconnected switches forms a single broadcast domain.
Second is the actual propagation delay as the signal takes time to travel through the cable. Longer cable and slower nominal velocity of propagation NVP result in more propagation delay. Users of network-based applications experience latency when they have to wait many minutes to access data stored in a data center or when a website takes many minutes to load in a browser. Switch-based latency may also be due to an oversubscribed switch fabric.
Network Congestion The primary reason for segmenting a LAN into smaller parts is to isolate traffic and to achieve better use of bandwidth per user. Figure shows a switch segmenting a LAN into four collision domains. Without segmentation. Switches also support the high transmission rates of voice. The predominant cause of network latency in a switched LAN is more a function of the media. The switch needs to be able to manage the amount of peak data expected on the network.
Basic Switch Concepts and Configuration 55 latency than if two properly configured routers separated them. Many entry level switches do not have enough internal throughput to manage full bandwidth capabilities on all ports simultaneously. Desktop publishing. High-bandwidth applications: Software applications are becoming richer in their functionality and are requiring more and more bandwidth.
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